RFID is a technology that uses radio waves for transmitting the identity (unique serial number) of an object or a person. If you have an electronic key to access your office building, it probably uses the same technology. An RFID system has a reader and a transponder (also called tag). The reader transmits electromagnectic waves in its surrounding through an antenna system, and when a tag passes passes through the zone, it is activated and the reader can read the identification data stored inside the electronic tag.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) with a microcontroller – [Link]