How to Connect to a Raspberry Pi with an Ethernet Cable

circuitbasics.com show us how to connect Rasperry Pi using Ethernet cable.

If you use your Raspberry Pi as a gaming console, media server, or stand-alone computer, WiFi is a great way to get internet access. But if you connect to your Pi with SSH or a remote desktop application a lot, WiFi is actually one of the slowest and least reliable ways to do it. A direct ethernet connection is much faster and a lot more stable.

How to Connect to a Raspberry Pi with an Ethernet Cable – [Link]

LT8390 – 60V Synchronous 4-Switch Buck-Boost Controller with Spread Spectrum

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The LT8390, is a synchronous buck-boost DC/DC controller that can regulate output voltage, and input or output current from input voltages above, below and equal to the output voltage. Its 4V to 60V input voltage range and 0V to 60V output voltage range are ideal for voltage regulator, battery and supercap charger applications in automotive, industrial, telecom and even battery-powered systems. The LT8390’s 4-switch buck-boost controller, combined with 4 external N-channel MOSFETs, can deliver from 10W to over 400W of power with efficiencies up to 98%. Its buck-boost capability is ideal for applications such as automotive, where the input voltage can vary dramatically during stop/start, cold crank and load dump conditions. Transitions between buck, buck-boost and boost operating modes are seamless, offering a well regulated output even with wide variations of supply voltage. The LT8390 is offered in either a 28-lead 4mm x 5mm QFN or thermally enhanced TSSOP to provide a very compact solution footprint. [source]

LT8390 – 60V Synchronous 4-Switch Buck-Boost Controller with Spread Spectrum – [Link]

HiFive1, An Open-Source RISC-V Development Kit

By bringing the power of open-source and agile hardware design to the semiconductor industry, SiFive aims to increase the performance and efficiency of customized silicon chips with lower cost.

The Freedom E310 (FE310) is the first member of the Freedom Everywhere SoCs family, a series of customizable microcontroller SoC platforms, designed based on SiFive’s E31 CPU Coreplex CPU for microcontroller, embedded, IoT, and wearable applications. The SiFive’s E31 CPU Coreplex is a high-performance, 32-bit RV32IMAC core. Running at 320+ MHz.

FE310 Block Diagram
FE310 Block Diagram

SiFive recently announced the ‘HiFive1’, an open-source Arduino-compatible RISC-V development board that features the FE310 SoC. It is a 68 x 51 mm board consists of 19 Digital I/O pins, 9 PWM pins, and 128 Mbit Off-Chip flash memory. HiFive1 operates at 3.3V and 1.8V and is fed with 5V via USB or with 7-12V DC jack. The board can be programed using Arduino IDE or Freedom E SDK.

HiFive1’s Specifications:
  • Microcontroller: SiFive Freedom E310 (FE310)
    • CPU: SiFive E31 CPU
    • Architecture: 32-bit RV32IMAC
    • Speed: 320+ MHz
    • Performance: 1.61 DMIPs/MHz, 2.73 Coremark/MHz
    • Memory: 16 KB Instruction Cache, 16 KB Data Scratchpad
    • Other Features: Hardware Multiply/Divide, Debug Module, Flexible Clock Generation with on-chip oscillators and PLLs
  • Operating Voltage: 3.3 V and 1.8 V
  • Input Voltage: 5 V USB or 7-12 VDC Jack
  • IO Voltages: Both 3.3 V or 5 V supported
  • Digital I/O Pins: 19
  • PWM Pins: 9
  • SPI Controllers/HW CS Pins: 1/3
  • External Interrupt Pins: 19
  • External Wakeup Pins: 1
  • Flash Memory: 128 Mbit Off-Chip (ISSI SPI Flash)
  • Host Interface (microUSB): Program, Debug, and Serial Communication
  • Dimensions: 68 mm x 51 mm
  • Weight: 22 g
HiFive1 Top View
HiFive1 Top View

riscv-blog-logoRISC-V is an open source instruction set architecture (ISA) that became a standard open architecture for industry implementations under the governance of the RISC-V Foundation. The RISC-V ISA was originally designed and developed in the Computer Science Division at the University of California to support computer architecture researches and education.

In a comparison with Arduino boards, the HiFive has 10x faster CPU clock, larger Flash memory, and lower power consumption. The table below shows the difference between Arduino UNO, Arduino Zero, and Arduino 101:

Comparison

HiFive may be a helpful tool for system architects, hardware hackers and makers, to develop RISC-V applications, customize their own microcontroller, support open-source chips and open hardware. It is also good as a getting started kit to learn more about RISC-V.

You can order a HiFive board for $59 at its crowdfunding campaign, and the full documentation is available here.

The New Fujitsu ReRam

Resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) is a type of non-volatile (NV) random-access (RAM) computer memory that works by changing the resistance across a dielectric solid-state material often referred to as a memristor.

Fujitsu Semiconductor has just launched world’s largest density 4 Mbit ReRAM product for mass production: MB85AS4MT. Partnering with Panasonic Semiconductor Solutions, this chip came to life.

The MB85AS4MT is an SPI-interface ReRAM product that operates with a wide range of power supply voltage, from 1.65V to 3.6V. It features an extremely small average current in read operations of 0.2mA at a maximum operating frequency of 5MHz.

It is optimal for battery operated wearable devices and medical devices such as hearing aids, which require high density, low power consumption electronic components.

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Main Specifications
  • Memory Density (configuration): 4 Mbit (512K words x 8 bits)
  • Interface: Serial peripheral interface (SPI)
  • Operating power supply voltage: 1.65V – 3.6V
  • Low power consumption:
    • Read operating current: 0.2mA (at 5MHz)
    • Write operating current: 1.3mA (during write cycle time)
    • Standby current: 10µA
    • Sleep current: 2µA
  • Guaranteed write cycles: 1.2 million cycles
  • Guaranteed read cycles: Unlimited
  • Write cycle time (256 byte page): 16ms (with 100% data inversion)
  • Data retention: 10 years (up to 85°C)
  • Package: 209 mil 8-pin SOP

This figure shows the block diagram of the chip:

reram

MB85AS4MT is suitable for lots of applications like medical devices, and IoT devices such as meters and sensors. In addition, the chip has the industry’s lowest power consumption for read operations in non-volatile memory.

For more information about MB85AS4MT, you can check the datasheet and the official website.

DC Motor & Direction Controller with Brake using MC33035

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This is a 3AMP DC Motor speed and direction controller using MC33035 IC from on semiconductor, though the MC33035 was designed to control brushless DC motor , it may also be used to control DC brush type motors. MC33035 driving a Mosfets based H-Bridge affording minimal parts count to operate a brush type motor. On board potentiometer provided for speed control, slide switch for direction control and brake, On board jumper available to enable the chip. The controller function in normal manner with a PWM frequency of approximately 25Khz. Motor speed is controlled by adjusting the voltage presented to the non inverting input of the error amplifier establishing the PWM’s slice or reference level. Cycle by cycle current limiting of the motor is accomplished by sensing the voltage across the shunt resistor to the ground of H-bridge. The overcurrent sense circuit makes it possible to reverse the direction of the motor, using normal forward/reverse switch, on the fly and not have to completely stop it before reversing.

DC Motor & Direction Controller with Brake using MC33035 – [Link]

Adjusting clock with alarm, hygrometer & thermometer on 1.8″ ST7735 display

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Nicu Florica blogged about his adjusting clock with alarm, hygrometer and thermometer on 1.8″ ST7735 display:

I use feature from article Another adjusting clock with alarm & thermometer using DS3231 on 1.8″ ST7735 display and change reading internal temperature of DS3231 with DHT22 sensor (AM2302), but you can use a cheaper and not very precise DHT11 sensor.
By using educ8stv_rtctft160_alarm_dht.ino or much better educ8stv_rtctft160_alarm_eeprom_dht.ino sketch, on display you can see: name of day, date, hour clock, hour alarm, temperature and humidity

Adjusting clock with alarm, hygrometer & thermometer on 1.8″ ST7735 display – [Link]

RELATED POSTS

MDBT42Q, nRF52832-based BLE module

The open hardware innovation platform Seeedstudio produces the MDBT42Q, a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) module. It is a BT 4.0, BT 4.1 and BT 4.2 module designed based on Nordic nRF52832 SoC, a powerful, highly flexible ultra-low power multiprotocol SoC ideally suited for Bluetooth low energy, ANT and 2.4GHz ultra low-power wireless applications.

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MDBT42Q features a dual transmission mode of BLE and 2.4 GHz RF with over 80 meters working distance in open space. It is a 16 x 10 x 2.2 mm board which contains GPIO, SPI, UART, I2C, I2S, PWM and ADC interfaces for connecting peripherals and sensors.

nrf52832_mediumThe nRF52832 SoC is built around a 32-bit ARM® Cortex™-M4F CPU with 512kB and 64kB RAM. The embedded 2.4GHz transceiver supports Bluetooth low energy, ANT and proprietary 2.4 GHz protocol stack. It is on air compatible with the nRF51 Series, nRF24L and nRF24AP Series products from Nordic Semiconductor.

MDBT42Q Specifications:

  • Multi-protocol 2.4GHz radio
  • 32-bit ARM Cortex – M4F processor
  • 512KB flash programmed memory and 64KB RAM
  • Software stacks available as downloads
  • Application development independent from protocol stack
  • On-air compatible with nRF51, nRF24AP and nRF24L series
  • Programmable output power from +4dBm to -20dBm
  • RAM mapped FIFOs using EasyDMA
  • Dynamic on-air payload length up to 256 bytes
  • Flexible and configurable 32 pin GPIO
  • Simple ON / OFF global power mode
  • Full set of digital interface all with Easy DMA including:
  • 3 x Hardware SPI master ; 3 x Hardware SPI slave
  • 2 x two-wire master ; 2 x two-wire slave
  • 1 x UART (CTS / RTS)
  • PDM for digital microphone
  • I2S for audio
  • 12-bit / 200KSPS ADC
  • 128-bit AES ECB / CCM / AAR co-processor
  • Lowe cost external crystal 32MHz ± 40ppm for Bluetooth ; ± 50ppm for ANT Plus
  • Lowe power 32MHz crystal and RC oscillators
  • Wide supply voltage range 1.7V to 3.6V
  • On-chip DC/DC buck converter
  • Individual power management for all peripherals
  • Timer counter
  • 3 x 24-bit RTC
  • NFC-A tag interface for OOB pairing
  • RoHS and REACH compliant

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This BLE module can be used in a wide range of applications, such as Internet of Things (IoT), Personal Area Networks, Interactive entertainment devices, Beacons, A4WP wireless chargers and devices, Remote control toys, and computer peripherals and I/O devices.

Full specifications, datasheet, and product documents are available at seeedstudio store, it can be backordered for only $10.

3D Printed Organ-On-Chip

Researcher at Harvard University had been working to build new microphysiological systems (MPS), also known as organs-on-chips, that can mimic the operation of the structure and function of native tissue.

By developing such systems, they are replacing the conventional way of measuring and testing synthetic organs -usually by testing them first on animals.

organonchip

Although such a solution can help in advancing research and making easy organ-replacement real, but it also somehow costly and considered as laborious.

To build up this system you need a clean room and you have to use a complex, multistep lithographic process. To collect data you also need microscopy or high-speed cameras. Considering also the fact that current MPS typically lack integrated sensors, researchers developed six different inks that integrated soft strain sensors within the micro-architecture of the tissue.

09/15/2016 Cambridge, MA. Harvard University. This images shows multi-material, direct write 3D printing of a cardiac microphysiological device. This instrument was designed for in vitro cardiac tissue research. Lori K. Sanders/Harvard University
This images shows multi-material, direct write 3D printing of a cardiac microphysiological device. This instrument was designed for in vitro cardiac tissue research. Lori K. Sanders/Harvard University

They combined all the steps in one automated procedure using 3D printer. The result was  a cardiac microphysiological device — a heart on a chip — with integrated sensors.  According to the research paper, these 6 inks were designed based on “piezo-resistive, high-conductance, and biocompatible soft materials that enable integration of soft strain gauge sensors within micro-architectures that guide the self-assembly of physio-mimetic laminar cardiac tissues”

“We are pushing the boundaries of three-dimensional printing by developing and integrating multiple functional materials within printed devices,” said Jennifer Lewis, Hansjorg Wyss Professor of Biologically Inspired Engineering. “This study is a powerful demonstration of how our platform can be used to create fully functional, instrumented chips for drug screening and disease modeling.”

You can check this video to see this heart in action, and to take a look at the 6 inks 3D printer

Right now, researchers are testing their new heart-on-chip by performing drug studies and longer-term studies of gradual changes in the contractile stress of engineered cardiac tissues, which can take multiple weeks. This approach will make it much easier to test and measure the tissue contractile and its response to various chemicals like drugs and toxins.

This work was published in Nature Materials and the research was named “Instrumented cardiac microphysiological devices via multimaterial three-dimensional printing”.It was supported by the National Science Foundation, the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health, the US Army Research Laboratory and the US Army Research, and the Harvard University Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC).  For more information, you can check the paper out here and learn more at Harvard website.

Nanotechnoloy – Nano coating prevents exploding Li-ion batteries

Lithium-ion batteries are very popular as they’re lightweight and have high energy density. But at the same time, li-ion batteries are very sensitive to overcharge/over discharge. An internal short circuit can cause fire and it may even lead to a violent explosion. Fortunately, nanotechnology found a way to prevent this kind of nightmare. How? let’s discuss:

Why Does li-ion Battery Explode?

When a device draws too much power from a Li-Ion battery, it heats up and thus melts the internal separator between the two flammable electrolytes. This phenomenon ignites a chemical reaction between the electrolytes causing them to explode. Once their package ruptures, the oxygen in the surrounding air helps the flammable electrolytes to catch fire. The fire then spreads quickly to other cells and loads a thermal runaway.

Thermal runaway in Li-ion Battery
Thermal runaway in Li-ion Battery

During a thermal runaway, the high heat of the damaged or malfunctioning cell can propagate to the next cell, causing it to become completely thermally unstable as well. In some worse cases, a chain reaction occurs in which each cell disintegrates at its own timetable.

So, in a nutshell, Li-ion cells possess the potential of a thermal runaway. The temperature quickly rises to the melting point of the metallic lithium and cause a violent reaction, which finally causes an explosion.

How Can Nanotechnology Prevent This?

Recently conducted research shows that atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania (TiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) on Ni-rich FCG NMC and NCA active material particles could substantially improve Li-ion battery’s performance and allow for increased upper cutoff voltage (UCV) during charging, which delivers significantly increased specific energy utilization.

Atomic Layer Deposition in li-ion CellsAtomic Layer Deposition in li-ion Cells
Atomic Layer Deposition in li-ion Cells

 

A company called Forge Nano claims to prevent this thermal runaway situation by never letting it get started even if the battery electrodes are shorted out. Forge Nano’s precision coatings on cathode and anode powders protect against the most common degradation mechanisms found in Li-ion batteries.

The benefits of Forge Nano precision coatings include extended battery life and greater safety, especially in extreme situations such as high-temperature operation, fast cycling rates, and overvoltage conditions.

By implementing lithium-based ALD films in nanostructured 3D lithium-ion batteries, significant gains in power density, cycling performances during charge/discharge, and safety is noticed.

What’s the Result?

Some of Forge Nano’s accomplishments in the Li-ion battery space includes:

  • Increased lifetime of commercial cathode material by as much as 250%
  • 15% higher energy density in large format pouch cells (40 Ah) that pass nail penetration testing
  • 60% reduced gas generation in cathode material
  • A low-cost high-voltage cathode powder with exceptional performance
  • Increased rate capability of conventional materials for enhanced fast charge acceptance using Forge Nano’s proprietary solid electrolyte coatings

    ForgeNano Claims Their Technology as Best Solution
    ForgeNano Claims Their Technology as Best Solution

Since the solution found by the research, Forge Nano has been working on a commercial version of the product that they finally believe they can place in the market very soon.

PureModules, IoT Building Blocks

New range of building blocks for IoT development are just out there! Just like LEGO, PUREmodules by Pure Engineering are the building blocks for IoT connected smart sensors where there is no need to solder, using breadboard or wires. It’s all done just by snapping the modules together and writing some lines of code.

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The modules that are already designed are:

  • COREModule
  • SUPER SENSOR module
  • General Purpose IO modules via I2C Expanders
  • I2C ADC and DAC modules
  • Energy Harvesting Modules
  • Low power chemical Sensors
  • PIN diode Radiation Detector Module
  • I2C thermal camera modules
  • Dual I2C DC motor Module
  • GPS and IMU Module
  • Long Range LoRa RF modules (10+ miles)
  • Li-Ion and other Power modules
  • Ethernet Module
  • Low Power LCD module
  • User IO button and LED modules
  • Multiple Core modules; CC2650, EFM32, ESP32 and more.
  • Adapter modules to other sensor systems such as Grove and LittleBits
  • Adapters to popular platforms such as Arduino and Raspberry Pi.

Only COREmodule and SUPER SENSOR module are live now in the Kickstarter campaign that Pure Engineering has launched, check the campaign video:

COREmodule

The brain of other modules based on nRF52832 SOC. It is compatible with Arduino and a number of other open source frameworks, it has an onboard antenna and able to update its firmware over the air. Also it supports these IoT operating systems: Mynewt, Zephyr, Contiki OS, RIOT-OS, and mbed OS.

puremodules-internet-of-things-building-blocks

SUPER SENSOR module

This multi function sensor can be used in home automation and monitoring, health tracking, and industrial measurement. It contains the following embedded sensors: barometric pressure, humidity, temperature, accelerometer, magnetometer, UVA UVB, RGB, IR, and heart rate pulse oximetry.

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PUREmodules goal is to simplify IoT development for hackers, tinkerers and designers and to propose a new easy way of interaction and control everything through the Internet. More details can be found at the official website and the Kickstarter campaign. You can pre-order a COREmodule and SUPER SENSOR for $59 as an early bird pledge.