Researchers Demonstrate New More Efficient FET By Implementing Negative Capacitance

A group of Researchers from Purdue University in Lafayette, Indiana demonstrated the effect called negative capacitance by making a new type of more energy efficient transistor. This new kind of Field Effect Transistor (FET) proves a theory introduced in 2008 by Supriyo Datta, the Thomas Duncan Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Sayeef Salahuddin, who is a professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences at the University of California, Berkeley.

A new type of transistor (a) harnesses a property called negative capacitance.
A new type of field effect transistor harnesses a property called negative capacitance.

The researchers from Purdue University made a much thinner layer using the semiconductor Molybdenum disulfide. It creates a channel adjacent to an important part of transistors called the gate. By using a “ferroelectric material” called hafnium zirconium oxide, they created a negative capacitor which is a key component in the newly designed gate.

Capacitance is the property of any dielectric or conductor to store electrical charge. It is ordinarily a positive quantity. With the help of ferroelectric materials, the new FET gate structure allows a negative capacitance. Due to this the energy needed to switch the FET is considerably reduced. This new design just substitutes hafnium oxide with hafnium zirconium oxide. Hafnium oxide is a conventional material to use in modern FETs as a dielectric material to isolate the gate. This work is led by Peide Ye, Richard J. and Mary Jo Schwartz of Purdue University.  Ye said,

The overarching goal is to make more efficient transistors that consume less power, especially for power-constrained applications such as mobile phones, distributed sensors, and emerging components for the internet of things

Transistors act like a tiny electronic switch. They can turn on and off very fast, allowing computers to process information in binary code. A proper switching off state is very important to ensure that no electricity “leaks” through. This switching normally needs a minimum of 60 millivolts for every tenfold increase in current. This requirement called the thermionic limit. However, transistors using negative capacitance can break this fundamental limit, because they can switch at far lower voltages resulting in smaller power consumption.

New findings from the research group have advanced the conventional transistor technology to a much efficient and faster level. Only time will justify if the new ‘negative capacitance‘ FETs can revolutionize the modern electronics.

Embedded oscilloscope family for advanced electronics

By Ally Winning @

The R&S RTM3000 and R&S RTA4000 series oscilloscopes have been launched by Rohde & Schwarz to enable advanced power measurements and accurately analyse serial protocols.

The RTM3000 oscilloscopes have bandwidths of 100 MHz, 200 MHz, 350 MHz, 500 MHz and 1 GHz. The products also feature a 5 Gsample/s 10-bit ADC, and a 40 Msample (80 Msample interleaved) per channel acquisition memory with an optional 400 Msample segmented acquisition memory.

The RTA4000 oscilloscopes offer bandwidths of 200 MHz, 350 MHz, 500 MHz and 1 GHz. The oscilliscopes have the same 10-bit ADC, but have an enhanced memory of 100 Msample (200 Msample interleaved) per channel acquisition memory and included 1 Gsample (1,000 Msample) segmented acquisition memory. Both series have a 10.1″ capacitive touchscreen display.

Embedded oscilloscope family for advanced electronics – [Link]

DAC Shield For Arduino Nano using MCP4725

This project features an easy to use Digital to Analog converter (DAC) shield for Arduino Nano. The project is built using MC4725 12Bit DAC IC over I2C communication. The shield directly seats on Arduino Nano and also can be used as stand-alone DAC converter that can be connected to other micro-controller board with help of 5 pin header connector. Output is 0-5V. PCB jumper J1 provided to select the address in case of using multiple modules on the same I2C .

Shield also provided with high current driver circuit, which converters voltage to current and can be used to drive Laser diode or LED. Maximum possible load 500mA.

DAC Shield For Arduino Nano using MCP4725 – [Link]

SudoProc – A solderable 1.8GHz Quad Cortex-A17 module With 4GB RAM and HDMI 2.0

A Slovenia based startup Sudo Systems will soon launch a module called SudoProc. This module is highly compact (65 x 40 x 4.3mm) and solderable. It contains Rockchip’s 1.8GHz, quad-core, Cortex-A17 SoC RK3288 SoC with 600MHz Mali-T764 GPU. The highlighted feature set includes 4GB of dual-channel 1066MHz LPDDR3 RAM. SudoProc also includes an embedded security engine, a Gigabit Ethernet controller, and support for HDMI 2.0 4K with 10-bit H.265 video decoding.

SudoProc module by Sudo Systems
SudoProc module by Sudo Systems

This is only the second, independently available RK3288-based “computer-on-module” available out there. Boardcon’s MINI3288 is also available on its sandwich-style EM3288 SBC. The RK3288 is the backbone of Android mini-PCs and also powers several Linux/Android-based open source Single Board Computers(SBC). The SudoProc supports Android 5.0 to 7.0, as well as Debian, Ubuntu, and an in-house developed SudoOS Linux distribution.

The SudoProc module offers a lot of RAM along with a huge amount of onboard eMMC 4.5 32GB storage. It is expandable up to 512GB. There’s also support for 2x SDIO 3.0. It has HDMI 2.0 for video support and SPDIF and I2S/PCM take care of Audio.

The 218-pin SudoProc is further provided with interfaces including USB 2.0 host and OTG, as well as 5x UART, 5x I2C, 3x SPI, 4x PWM with the interrupt. SudoProc also has up to 100 GPIOs which are programmable as interrupt inputs. Other listed I/Os includes 3-channel, 10-bit SARADC, 8-bit TS stream shared with CIF, a “Host” interface shared with GMAC, and a GPS interface. On-demand optional I/O incorporates HSIC 2.0, PS/2, and Smart Card.

The 5V/3A module supports 1.8V to 3.3V logic level output and allows remote control of the PMIC. Sudo Systems did a good job with its thermal dissipation design. There’s an integrated heatsink to take care of it. With the maximum thermal dissipation of 10W, the module’s estimated workings temperature is 25°C to 85°C.

In February, the SudoProc will open for pre-orders in limited quantities and will be shipped by March. The price is about $300, including a development board of the module. For further information, contact Sudo Systems at

iWave releases first Xilinx Zynq 7000 based SOM Module

The Zynq 7000 family based on the All Programmable SoC architecture are processor-center platforms that offer software, hardware and I/O programmability in a single chip.

iWave Systems which has released several Altera based FPGA system on modules has just announced its SODIMM (Small Outline Dual In-Line Memory Module) form-factor Xilinx Zynq based module known as the iWave’s iW-RainboW-G28M. The iW-RainboW-G28M features the Xilinx Zynq 7000 series SOC with Dual Cortex A9 CPU @ 866MHz, 85K FPGA logic cells, and up to 125 FPGA IOs.

iWave iW-RainboW-G28M SOM

The iWave iW-RainboW-G28M is compatible with the Zynq Z-7007S, Z-7014S, Z-7010, and Z-7020 SoC. Equipped with an onboard 512 Mbytes of NAND Flash, 512Mbytes of DDR3 SDRAM, Gigabit Ethernet, USB 2.0 ports, an optional Micro SD slot, and an optional WIFI/Bluetooth module with a form-factor of 67.6 mm x 37 mm plug-in SODIMM style. It supports -40 to 85oC temperatures and powered through the SOM edge connector with a 3.3 DC Volt.

SOM Block Diagram

The following are the SOM specifications:

  • SoC –
    • Xilinx Zyng 7000 SoC
    • Single/Dual Cortex A9 @ up to 866MHz
    • Up to 85K logic cells
  • SoC Compatibility –
    • Compatible with Z-7007S, Z-7014S, Z-7010, and Z-7020
  • Memory –
    • 512 MB DDR3 and expandable to 1GB
    • 512 MB NAND Flash
    • An Optional QSPI Flash
    • Optional Micro SD Slot/eMMC (Optional)
  • Zynq PS & PL Interfaces –
    • Gigabit Ethernet x1 Port
    • USB 2.0 OTG x 1 Port
    • SD (4bit) x 1 Port
    • Debug UART
    • JTAG Port
    • 60 LVDS/120 SE FPGA IOs
  • SOM Features –
    • PMIC with RTC
    • Gigabit Ethernet Transceiver
    • USB 2.0 Transceiver
    • Optional Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Module
  • OS Support –
    • PetaLinux 4.9.0
  • Power Supply –
    • 3V DC
  • Temperature Support –
    • -400C to +850C
  • Dimension –
    • 6mm x 37mm

The iW-RainboW-G28M has applications in the areas of Industrial Automation, Machine Vision, Control & Measurement, Scientific Instruments and Medical Instruments. For pricing and availability, please contact iWave directly iW-RainboW-G28M SODIMM SOM.

New Small Form Factor PCs from Asus- CES 2018

CES is one the largest gathering places for people in the technology industry for introducing their new products and understanding the new technology trends. Asus is one of the biggest hardware, and robotics companies to be attending. This company will be displaying their small form factor solutions: PB40, PN40 mini PCs, Chromebox 3, and thinker board S. The main goal of this products is to offer a small and versatile product without compromising quality and performance.

The first one, PB40 mini PC gives its users the possibility to have the power of a computer with a portable size. It can support up to an 8th generation Intel Pentium processors, it has 6 USB 3.1 type-C ports, and support for VGA, COM, HDMI, and display. It comes in two variants N5000 quad core with burst frequency up to 2,7 GHz or J5005 quad core with burst frequency up to 2,8 GHz. It is also offered without a fan for silent operation.

Asus PB40

Just as the PB40, the PN40 is powerful, and small (not as powerful as the PB40). It’s ideal for home and business usage weighting 1.54 lbs. and measuring 114 x 114 x 49 mm. Also, it has a wide range of connectivity options including USB 3.1 for fast data transmission.

Asus PN40

The third one, the Chromebox 3 is the new successor of Chromebox 2 (released in 2016). It can support up to an 8th generation intel core processor and a DDR4 2400 memory. This new version has graphics and power improvements. Memory will be available in 4, 16, 32 and 128 GB, and wireless connectivity is dual band 802.11 ac WIFI and Bluetooth. Additionally, an audio jack, card reader and USB 3.1 connector will be included.

Chromebox 3

The last one, Tinker Board S maintains the same size and component placement as it´s previous version, but offers greater durability, stability, and improved user experience. It has on board 16GB eMMC storage, a microSD slot, HDMI-CEC-ready (allows users to control tv and Tinker Board with the same remote control), on board power on pin, audio jack, and enhanced I2S pin.

Tinker Board S

The PB40, the PN40 and the Chromebox 3 are expected to be on the market in the second half of 2018 with a price yet to be announced. The Tinker Board will be launched on the first quarter of 2018 at a starting price of $79.99. Comparing to previous versions, connectivity issues have been improved, but the memory could be better. These devices offer a lot of power in a small size which is an advantage for consumers, industries, and makers.

SimScale is Teaching Electronics Engineers How to Test Designs with Cloud-based CFD

Munich, January 9, 2018 — SimScale is announcing a free webinar on 24th of January to teach electronics engineers how conjugate heat transfer simulation in the cloud can help better investigate the thermal response of electronic packaging.

According to the Electrical and Electronic Manufacturing Market Briefing 2017 report from The Business Research Company (TBRC), the global electrical and electronics manufacturing market is expected to reach $3 trillion by 2020.

In such an innovation-driven and competitive industry, engineers deal with increasingly stringent thermal requirements due to the rapid increase in high-power density electronics. Thermal integrity is one of the most important considerations for electronics packaging or enclosures that affect the product lifecycle. The thermal impact on the electronic packaging is a key factor in material selection, cooling and form-related decisions that eventually determine the weight, size, and cost of the final design. It is vital for designers to determine the heat signatures of their system. (more…)

Arduino Milliohm Meter

danielrp @ writes:

This is an accurate milliohm meter with a maximum resolution of 0.1mOhm. The design is very simple, the whole assembly can be built in a couple of hours once all the parts are gathered. It is based on a precision current sink and a high-resolution ADC controlled by an Arduino Nano V3. It uses a Kelvin connection with the resistor under test to exclude the resistance of test leads from the measurements. It can be very useful for measuring small resistors and the resistance of PCB traces, motor coils, inductance coils, transformer coils, or calculate the length of wires.

Arduino Milliohm Meter – [Link]

Overclocking Raspberry Pi

How to overclock the Raspberry Pi device? Don’t matter if you are looking for the way to overclock the Raspberry Pi 3 or overclock the Raspberry Pi 2 – the algorithm stays the same.

The only thing should be taken into consideration is that the Raspberry Pi 3 has significantly improved processor performance compared to previous models. Through various techniques such as overclocking and overvoltage, we can get even more power out of the Raspberry Pi 3. While Raspberry Pi 2 device will always be a little bit behind on performance due to basic technical peculiarities.

Overclocking, basically, is the way to boost Raspberry Pi hardware performance by tuning up several device parameters. For that, additional hardware and special skills are required. Also, you’ll need to implement several tests to make sure of changes to take effect as well as keep your device from damage.

As you have already understood, the overclocking of your Raspberry Pi 3 exercises some risks. What are they and how to avoid them, read in this article on the link.

Alexa On Every Device with the Amazon Alexa Premium Far-Field Voice Development Kit

Amazon’s Alexa is an intelligent voice-controlled personal assistant launched in 2014 and has been on an increasing demand ever since. First integrated into the Echo, the Alexa platform has been an exponential growth in the consumer industry.

Amazon’s Alexa Premium Far-Field Voice Development kit is a kit released by Amazon that will allow manufacturers to add high-quality Alexa voice experiences into their products, allowing Amazon to integrate Alexa into hundreds to thousands of products without necessarily building the products themselves.

This kit provides support for 360o tabletop far-field voice activation applications, as well ass applications that require voice-activation from one direction. It incorporates Amazon’s proprietary software and algorithm technology for “Alexa” wake word recognition, beam forming, noise reduction, and acoustic echo cancellation, and accurate far-field voice recognition in noisy environments and from long distances.

The development kit includes:

  • Two microphone array boards
  • A digital signal processor board
  • A Raspberry Pi 3 with the Amazon Voice Service (AVS) Device SDK
The 8-microphone board (left) and 7-microphone board (right)

The microphone board comprises of a 7 and 8 microphone arrays optimized for premium far-field audio performance, and the Raspberry PI 3 board can be replaced by any Linux embedded platform for production ready.

The Amazon Alexa Premium Far-Field Voice Development kit is primed for applications that include smart speakers, smart home, IoT devices, router and gateway devices, sound bars, and set-top boxes.

Major Device Technical Specifications:

  • Microphone Array Configurations –
    • 7 mic circular, 72.76mm diameter
    • 8 mic rectangular, 67.50mm x 22.50mm
  • Digital Signal Processor –
    • Intel’s dual DSP with inference engine
  • System Processor Support –
    • Raspberry Pi 3 Model B
    • Compatible with processors capable of running the AVS Device SDK
  • Power Supply –
    • 15 DC Volt Input
  • OS Support –
    • Raspbian Stretch
    • AVS Device SDK and supports most embedded Linux platforms

With the introduction of the kit, Amazon is lowering the barrier for any company to add Alexa to their products and hopes to make Alexa work everywhere and make it the most important and intimate computer in your life.