In this video educ8s.tv is going to show us how to use interrupts with Arduino, an advanced but extremely useful feature of the Arduino.
But what is an interrupt? Most microprocessors have interrupts. Interrupts let you respond to external events while doing something else. Suppose you are sitting at home waiting for the new ESP32 board, you have ordered a few days ago, to arrive at your mailbox. You are very excited so you check your mailbox every ten minutes to see if the board has arrived. This procedure is called polling, and we were using this technique a lot in our projects. But what if we had told the mailman to ring the doorbell at his arrival? This way, we are free to do anything we want and at the time the board arrives at the mailbox we get notified and we can use it at once. This example explains exactly how an interrupt causes a processor to act.
Arduino Interrupts Tutorial – [Link]
Researchers at Cardiff University use 3D printing to create small devices that move small volumes of fluid and are used in various areas of research. 3D printing makes it possible to share the devices with other researchers, making the study of microfluidics more accessible to a wider audience. The 3D printed devices offer a cost-effective alternative to the traditional ones, which are expensive and require specialized skills and equipment. As technology advances and more materials become available, the application of 3D printing in microfluidics research continues to grow.
Microfluidic devices are small-scale circuits that are used to study the behavior of fluids in small volumes. The devices consist of small tubes that deliver small volumes of fluid to different sensors and other actuators in the circuit. Conceptually, they can be compared to plumbing systems that are reduced in size, onto a chip. The techniques used to create these microfluidic devices largely coincide with techniques used in the microelectronics industry to make the electronic chips in our computers and phones.
Microfluidic devices are used to make, for example, artificial cells for pharmaceuticals development, nuclear fusion targets for fusion energy production, and alginate capsules with neuronal stem cells inside to transplant into people with damaged spinal cords.
Traditionally, making these microfluidic devices was an expensive, lengthy and sophisticated process, requiring different types of expertise and using specialized equipment. The adoption of 3D printing significantly sped up this process, made it a lot cheaper, and allowed for the devices to be made on the spot in the research lab.
3D printing microfluidic devices
Using their Ultimakers, researchers at Cardiff University now 3D print the microfluidic devices they use in their studies. The 3D printed devices are based on a modular system that consists of standard building blocks that are assembled together. Starting off with a number of standard components (tubings, junctions, etc.), the research team developed different types of microfluidic systems and used those designs to make a modular system that any other researcher can use to make their own microfluidic devices.
3D printing gives rise to significant cost savings over the traditional methods and allows for rapid iterations on the design of the microfluidic devices. Since the designs can easily be shared with researchers in different locations, microfluidics research becomes accessible to other researchers as well. As David Barrow, Research Professor at Cardiff University, explains:
The simple purchase of a 3D printer means that as long as one is able to draw out an object in a suitable file format, using a wide range of available software tools, it is a relatively easy thing to print the object, and indeed make many revisions, relatively rapidly.
3D printing in research
3D printing makes it possible to share the designs of microfluidic devices with other researchers so that they can print them out in their own lab, perform their tests and report back the results. In this way, microfluidics becomes accessible for other researchers that otherwise may not be using it.
As the 3D printing industry evolves, applications of 3D printing in research continue to grow. As Oliver Castell, Group leader for Membrane Biophysics and Engineering explains, as the diversity of available materials increases and the precision of the machines improves, it becomes possible to incorporate not only microfluidics but also optical and electronic components in one device. This will yield multi-functional devices made from different materials.
The role of 3D printing in research is expanding with these technological advancements. Take a look at Ultimaker’s explore pages for more applications of 3D printing in research.
by Graham Prophet @ edn-europe.com:
Silego Technology has developed a series of integrated power switches for use in mobile and battery powered products, to carry out power gating of functional blocks within a design; the devices come in sub-mm-size chip scale packages, handle currents from 1 to 4 A, and integrate functions such as in-rush current limiting and over-current or thermal protection.
Wafer-scale-packaged integrated FET switches handle 1 – 4A – [Link]
While the most of Linux programs are compiled to run on Intel x86 processors, the virtualization softwares appear to give the ability to run Intel x86 application on ARM-based Mini PC such as Raspberry Pi.
In this way, Eltechs, a high-tech startup company, had produced a new binary translator called “ExaGear Desktop”. It runs applications for the conventional desktop and server x86 processors on energy-efficient ARM CPU without recompilation.
ExaGear Desktop creates a second system known as the ‘guest’ system. Once installed, you can switch between the guest and your regular (‘host’) system using the ExaGear and exit commands. Inside the guest system, apt-get and dpkg are used to install Intel x86 software. The guest system is a transparent operation so there is no difference between running x86 applications on x86-based or ARM-based platform. It also gives you the ability to run Windows applications by installing Wine.
ExaGear is compatible with many of ARM-based Mini PCs such as Raspberry Pi 1, Raspberry Pi 2, ODROID, CubieBoard, CuBox, Utilite, Jetson TK1, Wandboard, Banana Pi etc. It also can run on Chromebook with Linux.
Compared with QEMU, another open-source virtualization software, ExaGear is 5 time faster and has much better performance with CPU and memory as the benchmark results shown when running on Raspberry Pi 2. You can see the benchmarking details and results here.
ExaGear is available for ordering through the official website with a price range between $16.45 and $56.45 according to the hardware used. You can find more information at the product page. And it may be useful to take a look at this review.
Stavros made a very small ESP8266 breakout board:
A very small breakout for the ESP8266. Includes all necessary pullups/pulldowns for it to boot to your code, a LDO regulator, a 3V3 output pin and enough breadboard space for one row on each side on a standard breadboard.
Tiny ESP8266 Breakout Board – [Link]
Keysight MXA revision-b signal analyzer / Spectrum analyzer review, analysis & experiments from The Signal Path:
In this episode Shahriar reviews the long awaited Keysight MXA Signal Analyzer (N9020B). The new X-Series Spectrum Analyzers from Keysight offer an entirely re-designed GUI interface which supports multiple tabs as well as multi-touch interaction.
Keysight MXA signal analyzer / Spectrum analyzer review, analysis & experiments – [Link]
by Graham Prophet @ edn-europe.com:
Belgian researchers from imec, at a conference** dedicated to compound semiconductor technology, are to present promising device results with a InGaAs-only TFET (tunnel field-effect transistor) that achieves a sub-60 mV/decade sub-threshold swing at room temperature.
InGaAs TFET, a potential alternative to MOSFET in future ultralow power chips – [Link]
by Mahesh Venkitachalam @ hackaday.io:
I use 9 V batteries for a prototyping a lot of my electronics projects. I was inspired by the Sparkfun breadboard power supply board, and wanted to create something similar, but with a more convenient form factor for use with a 9V battery. The design I came up with, is a tiny snap-on PCB with the regulator components on one side, and 9V battery contacts on the other. The idea is that the power supply will become part of the battery.
snapVCC – A snap-on regulated 3.3 V/5 V power supply – [Link]