Tag Archives: IBM

ICECool – An Intra-Chip Cooling System That Is More Efficient

In the Moore’s Law race to keep improving computer performance, the IT industry has turned upward, stacking chips like nano-sized 3D skyscrapers. But those stacks have their limits, due to overheating. Researchers from IBM have solved this problem by developing an intra-chip cooling system as a contribution to ICECool program research project by the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency).

ICECool - intra-chip cooling system by IBM
ICECool – intra-chip cooling system by IBM

Today, chips are typically cooled by fans which blow air through heatsinks that sit on top of the chips to carry away excess heat. Advanced water-cooling approaches, which are more effective than air-cooling approaches, replace the heatsink with a cold plate that is fixed on the top of the chip.  But this approach requires extra protection and proper insulation of the chip because of the electrical conductivity of water. Neither of these technologies can cool down the chip much efficiently. Here comes the ICECool that cools the chip down from the inside rather than just from the upper surface.

ICECool uses a nonconductive fluid to bring the fluid into the chip. This completely eliminates the need for a barrier between the chip and fluid. It not only delivers a lower device junction temperature, but also reduces system size, weight, and power consumption significantly. The tests performed on the IBM Power 7+ chips demonstrated junction temperature reduction by 25ᵒ C, and chip power usage reduction by 7 percent compared to traditional air cooling. This is clearly a great achievement when the operating cost is much smaller than the conventional cooling technologies.

IBM’s ICECool intra-chip cooling system solves the problem of cooling the 3D “skyscraper” chips by pumping a heat-extracting dielectric fluid right into microscopic gaps, some no thicker than a single strand of hair, between the chips at any level of the stack. Being nonconducting, the dielectric fluid used in ICECool can come into contact with electrical connections without causing any short circuit, so is not limited to one part of a chip or stack. Based on the tests with IBM Power Systems, ICECool technology could reduce the cooling energy for a traditional air-cooled data center by more than 90 percent.

A 5nm GAAFET Chip By IBM, Samsung & GlobalFoundries

In less than two years since making a 7nm test node chip with 20 billion transistors, scientists have paved the way for 30 billion switches on a fingernail-sized chip. IBM with its Research Alliance partners, GlobalFoundries and Samsung, have unveiled their industry-first process that will enable production of 5nm chips.

The new 5nm technology is one of the first ICs based on GAAFET (Gate-All-Around) topology transistors and also probably the first serious application of EUV (Extreme UltraViolet) lithography.

5 nm GAAFET IC from IBM, Samsung & GlobalFoundries
5 nm GAAFET IC from IBM, Samsung & GlobalFoundries

Gate-all-around FETs are similar in concept to FinFETs except that the gate material surrounds the channel region on all sides. Depending on design, gate-all-around FETs can have two or four effective gates. Successfully, Gate-all-around FETs have been characterized both theoretically and experimentally. Also, they have been successfully etched onto InGaAs nanowires, which have a higher electron mobility than silicon.

IBM claims that it can fit in up to 30 Billion transistors on the chip using GAAFET on a 50 mm² chip. It’s a big move in the semiconductor world, as designs become increasingly complicated to apply. While comparing 5nm GAAFET to 10nm commercial chips, it will achieve a 40% performance boost and a 75% power consumption reduction, at similar performance levels. These are some big claims, so expect some big changes just around the corner.

“For business and society to meet the demands of cognitive and cloud computing in the coming years, advancement in semiconductor technology is essential,” said Arvind Krishna, senior vice president, Hybrid Cloud, and director, IBM Research. “That’s why IBM aggressively pursues new and different architectures and materials that push the limits of this industry, and brings them to market in technologies like mainframes and our cognitive systems.”

For more information you can visit the official announcement.