This circuit can produce an output of 3.3V and 1A current continuously for a voltage input varying from 2.5V to 4.2V. The LTC3441 is a high efficient buck boost converter which plays a vital role in portable instrumentation because of its fixed frequency operation. This circuit produces the output from a single Li-ion battery. Multiple cells can also be used within the specified range of input voltage.
Input(V): 2.5V DC to 4.2V DC
Output(V): 3.3V DC
Output load: 1A
2.5V-4.2V input to 3.3V output – 1A Buck Boost Converter using LTC3441 – [Link]
Researchers at the University of Central Florida have been looking for alternatives for lithium rechargeable batteries which are largely used in every device.
Using two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) capacitive materials, they are building a new supercapacitor that overcomes the performance of conventional lithium battery and replaces its efficiently.
Transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (TMDs) are atomically thin semiconductors of the type MX₂, with M a transition metal atom and X a chalcogen atom. One layer of M atoms is sandwiched between two layers of X atoms.
TMDs are considered as promising capacitive materials for supercapacitor devices since they provide a suitable current conduction path and a robust large surface to increase the structure’s high energy and power density.
Researchers have developed “high-performance core/shell nanowire supercapacitors based on an array of one-dimensional (1D) nanowires seamlessly integrated with conformal 2D TMD layers. The 1D and 2D supercapacitor components possess “one-body” geometry with atomically sharp and structurally robust core/shell interfaces, as they were spontaneously converted from identical metal current collectors via sequential oxidation/sulfurization” according to the research paper.
The new prototype is said to be charged 30,000 times without any draining, 20 times the lifetime of an ordinary battery.
“You could charge your mobile phone in a few seconds and you wouldn’t need to charge it again for over a week,” says UCF postdoctoral associate Nitin Choudhary.
Lithium-ion batteries are very popular as they’re lightweight and have high energy density. But at the same time, li-ion batteries are very sensitive to overcharge/over discharge. An internal short circuit can cause fire and it may even lead to a violent explosion. Fortunately, nanotechnology found a way to prevent this kind of nightmare. How? let’s discuss:
Why Does li-ion Battery Explode?
When a device draws too much power from a Li-Ion battery, it heats up and thus melts the internal separator between the two flammable electrolytes. This phenomenon ignites a chemical reaction between the electrolytes causing them to explode. Once their package ruptures, the oxygen in the surrounding air helps the flammable electrolytes to catch fire. The fire then spreads quickly to other cells and loads a thermal runaway.
During a thermal runaway, the high heat of the damaged or malfunctioning cell can propagate to the next cell, causing it to become completely thermally unstable as well. In some worse cases, a chain reaction occurs in which each cell disintegrates at its own timetable.
So, in a nutshell, Li-ion cells possess the potential of a thermal runaway. The temperature quickly rises to the melting point of the metallic lithium and cause a violent reaction, which finally causes an explosion.
How Can Nanotechnology Prevent This?
Recently conducted research shows that atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania (TiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) on Ni-rich FCG NMC and NCA active material particles could substantially improve Li-ion battery’s performance and allow for increased upper cutoff voltage (UCV) during charging, which delivers significantly increased specific energy utilization.
A company called Forge Nano claims to prevent this thermal runaway situation by never letting it get started even if the battery electrodes are shorted out. Forge Nano’s precision coatings on cathode and anode powders protect against the most common degradation mechanisms found in Li-ion batteries.
The benefits of Forge Nano precision coatings include extended battery life and greater safety, especially in extreme situations such as high-temperature operation, fast cycling rates, and overvoltage conditions.
By implementing lithium-based ALD films in nanostructured 3D lithium-ion batteries, significant gains in power density, cycling performances during charge/discharge, and safety is noticed.
What’s the Result?
Some of Forge Nano’s accomplishments in the Li-ion battery space includes:
Increased lifetime of commercial cathode material by as much as 250%
15% higher energy density in large format pouch cells (40 Ah) that pass nail penetration testing
60% reduced gas generation in cathode material
A low-cost high-voltage cathode powder with exceptional performance
Increased rate capability of conventional materials for enhanced fast charge acceptance using Forge Nano’s proprietary solid electrolyte coatings
Since the solution found by the research, Forge Nano has been working on a commercial version of the product that they finally believe they can place in the market very soon.
A new prototype of a lithium-sulphur battery – which could have five times the energy density of a typical lithium-ion battery – overcomes one of the key hurdles preventing their commercial development by mimicking the structure of the cells which allow us to absorb nutrients. @ cam.ac.uk
This gets us a long way through the bottleneck which is preventing the development of better batteries.
Next-generation smartphone battery inspired by the gut – [Link]
ON Semiconductor has introduced a highly integrated single chip power bank charge controller for the development of next generation Li-Ion powered products. The LC709501F provides broad power and voltage/current output range of 5V, 9V and 12V operation, with a maximum charge/discharge capability of up to 30W through FET selection.
LC709501F – Li-ion, intelligent charge controller for next-generation power banks – [Link]
Steve Taranovich discuss about various ways to enhance Li-Ion batteries safety.
Typically, Lithium-ion batteries are safe and reliable. Just think about the $28B market they had in 2013 with a relatively small amount of fires and explosions. But every fire and explosion incident has the potential to cause a loss of life or serious personal injury (Not to mention the collateral material damage and cost).
Lithium-ion battery fires: 7 solutions for improved safety – [Link]
LTC4013 is a highly integrated, high voltage multi-chemistry synchronous step-down battery charger controller. With a wide input voltage range that spans up to 60V, the LTC4013 uses temperature-compensated 3- and 4-stage charge algorithms to efficiently charge 12V and 24V lead-acid batteries. By Graham Prophet @ edn-europe.com
Alternatively, the LTC4013 will charge a multicell Lithium-based battery stack with float voltages near to the input supply. Mode pins define the float voltage and charge algorithm. Charge current is precision regulated to ±5% and programmable with a single resistor up to 20A (depending on the selection of external components). The LTC4013 features user-adjustable maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuitry that enables simple power optimization in the case of power-limited sources such as solar panels. The MPPT open-circuit method corrects for panel temperature changes without the inconvenience of adding a solar panel temperature sensor. Applications include portable medical instruments, monitoring equipment, battery backup systems, industrial handhelds, industrial lighting, military equipment, ruggedized notebooks/tablet computers, plus remote powered communication and telemetry systems.
60V-input battery charger; Pb-acid & Li-ion charge algorithms up to 20A – [Link]
Numerous laboratories are working towards reducing or eliminating the accidental risks of Li ion batteries by working on solid electrolytes. Researchers at ETH at Zurich are developing unique solid materials which even when brought to high temperatures will not ignite. by Denis Meyer @ elektormagazine.com:
This represents a double advancement over current Li ion batteries which contain inflammable gel electrolytes, because not only does the fire risk disappear, but constraints over form-factor are also much less.
Lithium ion batteries that work best at 95°C – [Link]
This is a small bench power supply that is powered by two lithium-ion batteries. The project was inspired by Dave Jones from EEVblog but the design is completely mine. The voltage range is 0-20V regulated in 10mV steps and maximum current is 1A with current limit set in 1mA steps.
The power supply runs on a linear voltage regulator built on discrete components. The design of the linear regulator was inspired by the user Amspire from the EEVblog forum. The basic idea is that the Q1 pass transistor and U5A op amp act in a classic voltage regulating loop. U5A gets feedback from the output voltage and acts on Q1 in such a way that the output voltage equals the reference voltage on the inverting input. U5D acts as a comparator and switches the base of Q1 low to set the output voltage to 0V. It acts as a current limiter which is quickly switching on and off the output to maintain the set current limit.
AmpStrike – Battery Powered Bench Power Supply – [Link]
Charles Q. Choi @ spectrum.ieee.org discuss about a new type of li-ion battery able to work in low temperatures.
A new “all-climate” lithium-ion battery can rapidly heat itself to overcome freezing temperatures with little sacrifice in energy storage capacity and power, researchers say.
This advance might enable applications for which high-performance batteries are needed in extremely cold temperatures, such as electric cars in cold climates, high-altitude drones, and space exploration. EC Power is now creating all-climate battery cells in pilot-production volumes that can be put directly in vehicles, says study lead author Chao-Yang Wang, a mechanical and electrochemical engineer at Pennsylvania State University.
Lithium-Ion Battery Warms Up, Operates In Subzero Temperatures – [Link]