Tag Archives: PWM

Low-Cost FPGA With Reconfigurable Electronics Feature

Iolinker is a cheap 64 FPGA board with a MachXO FPGA that functions as a dynamically configurable IO matrix. Its main functionality, besides IO extension, is to dynamically set up a matrix of GPIO connections, that allow direct pass-through of high-frequency signals. Circuits can thereby be configured and programmed on the fly. There are UART / SPI / I2C connections that allow for easy integration of up to 127 chips connected in parallel.

Thanks to the open source library, Iolinker allows developers to create reconfigurable, easy to self test electronics within minutes. It can be used to be an IO extender and can output PWM signals. In addition, its revolutionary “IO linking” feature allows to dynamically pass through high-speed signals between IOs, better than any microprocessor ever could.

Check this teaser about the new board:

Iolinker has the following specifications:

  • Reprogrammable FPGA board with Lattice LCMXO3L-4300E-5UWG81CTR50
  • Preprogrammed and usable out of the box as your IO interface of choice.
  • 49 GPIOs for PWM or IO extension usage, VCCIO is 3.3V.
  • Boards can be connected in parallel, to create endless IO extension.
  • IOs can be linked to each other, i.e. you tell the FPGA to connect them, and it forwards the input signal from one pin to another. (Read more about the iolinker chip function.)
  • UART, SPI or I2C interfaces are available.

In order to make the ultimate IO interface for users, the team are accepting feature requests at the contact page.

In short, the Iolinker board is easy to use and can reconfigure schematics on the fly, what makes it ideal to reduce prototyping time and jumper cable mess, and to maximize the ability of using IO extensions.

More technical details about Iolinker and its price will be announced soon at the Kickstarter campaign at Feb 14. Some special offers are for everyone who register in the website’s newsletter, so register now and stay tuned!



In order to synthesize chlorates and perchlorates in the home lab it is always good to have a way to regulate the current flowing through the electrolyte. Because the load is purely resistive the simplest solution is a small PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) regulator. So I decided to make my own.

PWM Power Regulator – [Link]


The DRV101 is a low-side power switch employing a pulse-width modulated (PWM) output. Its rugged design is optimized for driving electromechanical devices such as valves, solenoids, relays, actuators, and positioners. The DRV101 module is also ideal for driving thermal devices such as heaters and lamps. PWM operation conserves power and reduces heat rise, resulting in higher reliability. In addition, adjustable PWM potentiometer allows fine control of the power delivered to the load. Time from dc output to PWM output is externally adjustable. The DRV101 can be set to provide a strong initial closure, automatically switching to a soft hold mode for power savings. Duty cycle can be controlled by a potentiometer, analog voltage, or digital-to-analog converter for versatility. A flag output LED D2 indicates thermal shutdown and over/under current limit. A wide supply range allows use with a variety of actuators.


Control AC Voltages Safely And Easily with Sugar Device

Sugar Device is a tool designed to control AC Voltage and it promises to change the way you control AC applications forever.
Sugar team is targeting hobbyists, students, teachers and engineers to push their application to the next level, since it makes AC control easy, safe and compatible with a lot of development platforms. The mechanical case that comes with Sugar is offering protection to users while using AC voltages and preventing any electrical shock resulted by misuse.

You can control AC voltage using Sugar with two different ways: ON-OFF switch, and AC output voltage control. You can power Sugar using the AC C14 cable. This voltage provided is used to power the load connected and the internal circuits. The fuse holder is accessible, you can replace it easily whenever you need.

For the output, Sugar is providing a universal output socket to connect your load, and it is compatible with all AC power cable types. Sugar can work with 110V/220V and with 50Hz/60Hz. You can switch between the two options using a switch provided with two indicator LEDs.

Sugar Device also can be connected with 3.3V and 5V development boards like Arduino, Raspberry Pi, and Beaglebone using the RJ12 cable. Sugar had designed  a RJ Connector breakout to make it possible to connect your board and it will be available in all kits. Controlling the AC loads using your PWM pins and Sugar will be so simple.

This 150x120x47 mm size device supports WiFi and Bluetooth and is IoT ready. For example, ESP8266 can directly control Sugar Device since it has PWM output with Frequency of 1KHz.

Sugar Device comes in two editions: Sugar 300, a white device that control up to 300W, and Sugar 1000, a black one that can control up to 1000W. The second one is offered for hackers and professionals where the first is for newbies.

Sugar Device is now live on a crowdfunding campaign on Indiegogo and still has a month to go. You can pre-order your Sugar 300 with a Power cord C14, RJ12 Cable, Sugar RJ Breakout and two AC fuse for only $49! Check the campaign video for more information.

In this video you can watch Sugar Device in Action, check it out!

Sugar device is the tool you need to expand the scope of your projects and control AC loads safely. Your dream of making your home smart can come true now with the use of this device. This device had came to life due to a cooperation with Fablab dynamic in Taipei, Taiwan. Such a cooperation will make it uncomplicated for makers to produce their own devices. Mohannad Rawashdeh and his team had tested many applications and used different platforms to ensure that Sugar is safe, practical and easy for everyone to use.

“When I was looking  for FabLab in Taiwan, I found FabLab Dynamic. They offered me a free space inside the lab to work and offered me all help I need to find component resources, using machines and instruments and contact with designers I need for my project” – Mohannad Rawashdeh, founder of Sugar Device and an electronics engineer.

You can check the campaign page to know the offers and full specifications. More information are provided on Sugar Device website. Many tutorials are added to this page and source files will be added soon on Github.

4.5A H-Bridge DC Motor Driver Module Using TB6549HQ

The H-Bridge Motor Driver Module Based on TB6549HQ IC from Toshiba, is a full-bridge driver IC for DC motors that uses an LDMOS structure for output transistors. High-efficiency drive is possible through the use of a MOS process with low ON-resistance and a PWM drive system. Four modes, CW, CCW, short brake, and stop, can be selected using IN1 and IN2. Supply input 12V to 30V DC and Maximum Load 4.5Amps.


  • Power supply voltage: 30 V (max)
  • Output current 4.5 A
  • Low ON-resistance: 1.0 Ω (up + low/typ.)
  • PWM control capability
  • Standby system
  • Function modes: CW/CCW/short brake/stop
  • Built-in overcurrent protection
  • Built-in thermal shutdown circuit

4.5A H-Bridge DC Motor Driver Module Using TB6549HQ – [Link]

New PWM controller IC By Microchip Charges Batteries of Any Chemistry

Battery technologies of all chemistry are experiencing revolutionary changes nowadays. Nanotechnology is leading this revolution by yielding new battery technologies including but not limited to Tiny Supercapacitors and Li-ion batteries that never explode at any condition. But, it’s bothersome to make different chargers for different types of batteries. So, Microchip solved this problem by introducing a new hybrid PWM controller, MCP19124/5, that charges batteries of any chemistry.

MCP19124 PWM Controller - 24 Pin QFN Package
MCP19124 PWM Controller – 24 Pin QFN Package

The power of this charging device lies in the combination of an 8-bit PIC microcontroller and an analog PWM controller in one package. This mixed signal low-side PWM controller features individual analog PWM control loops for both current regulation and voltage regulation. It can be configured with separate feedback networks and reference voltages. Any voltage, current, temperature, or duration can be used to trigger a transition to a different charging profile.

Various types of batteries require different charging profile. So, the only way to charge all kinds of batteries with a single device is to simulate all the charging profiles. A user can set his/her desired profile with the help of two independent current and voltage control loops, along with variable reference voltage. Now let’s get to know more details about this versatile PWM controller IC.

MCP19124/5 : 

The MCP19124/5 is a mid-voltage (4.5-42V) analog-based PWM controller with an integrated 8-bit PIC Microcontroller. There are two devices, the MCP19124 and MCP19125, where the last one has four I/O pins more than the first one. MPC19124 and MPC19125 are packaged in 24-lead QFN package and 28-lead QFN package respectively. It has following features:

  • Smooth, dynamic transitions from constant-current to constant-voltage operation
  • Dynamically adjustable output current and output voltage over a wide operating range
  • Wide operating voltage range: 4.5-42V
  • Analog peak-current mode Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) control
  • Available fixed frequency (31 kHz to 2 MHz)
  • I2C communication interface
  • 9 GPIO for MCP 19124 and 12 GPIO for MCP19125
  • Integrated high voltage linear regulator, with external output
  • Integrated temperatures sense diode
  • Integrated 10 bit A/D converter
  • Minimal external components needed
  • Custom algorithm support
  • Topologies supported include Boost, SEPIC, Flyback, and Cuk

In fact, the above list is just a brief overview. The controller is so complicated that user must read all 236 pages of the datasheet to gain sufficient knowledge.

Now, the question is, how can we use this IC to design an efficient battery charger?

To find the answer, one must read the datasheet thoroughly. At the same time, in-depth knowledge about the target battery is also required. However, Microchip provided a few schematics (as references) in the datasheet based on different applications. The circuit on battery charger is given below:

Battery Charger Circuit Using MCP19124 ICBattery Charger Circuit Using MCP19124 IC
Battery Charger Circuit Using MCP19124 IC

This ultimate powerful dual-loop PWM controller is going to be a game changer and part of the battery technology revolution. It possesses lots of possibilities. To learn more about this fantastic hybrid controller, study the datasheet carefully.

DC Motor & Direction Controller with Brake using MC33035


This is a 3AMP DC Motor speed and direction controller using MC33035 IC from on semiconductor, though the MC33035 was designed to control brushless DC motor , it may also be used to control DC brush type motors. MC33035 driving a Mosfets based H-Bridge affording minimal parts count to operate a brush type motor. On board potentiometer provided for speed control, slide switch for direction control and brake, On board jumper available to enable the chip. The controller function in normal manner with a PWM frequency of approximately 25Khz. Motor speed is controlled by adjusting the voltage presented to the non inverting input of the error amplifier establishing the PWM’s slice or reference level. Cycle by cycle current limiting of the motor is accomplished by sensing the voltage across the shunt resistor to the ground of H-bridge. The overcurrent sense circuit makes it possible to reverse the direction of the motor, using normal forward/reverse switch, on the fly and not have to completely stop it before reversing.

DC Motor & Direction Controller with Brake using MC33035 – [Link]

4-20 mA current output for Arduino Uno


Giovanni Carrera writes:

The purpose of this project is to provide a 4-20 mA output from a PWM signal generated by a microcontroller ATmega328 and numerous other chips, such as the PIC. One of the more interesting applications of this circuit would be to replace or to realize a smart sensor with Arduino.”

4-20 mA current output for Arduino Uno – [Link]

PWM Fan controller


Lucky Resistor has build a PWM fan controller using Arduino and DHT22 sesnsors.

The fan controller described on this project page, controls one or more PWM controlled 12V PC fans. It uses the input from two precise DHT22 based temperature sensors. The MCU is an Arduino Uno, which is powered using a 12V power source. On top of the Arduino Uno, there is the Adafruit data logger shield — and on top of that is an Adafruit LCD shield. The software is a simple, custom written PID controller.

PWM Fan controller – [Link]

12V NE555 PWM Controller


baelza.bubba @ instructables.com build his own PWM controller which is able to operate as a 12V Motor Speed Controller, LED Dimmer, Heat controller, voltage controller for an electrolytic etcher etc.


I did some hunting around on the interweb and found a pretty good starting point in Circuits Today, but then, I needed to make some modification and tweaking of the circuit. I wanted to add in a toggle switch, a DC power socket and a 2 pin screw terminal into the design to make it easier to make and use.

12V NE555 PWM Controller – [Link]