The Juice4Halt module is a supercapacitor based energy storage. It contains two independent DC/DC converters. The first one is a bidirectional step-up/step-down converter working as the interface between the stable 5V supply rail and the supercapacitor. During charging the converter works in step-down mode and transports energy from the external power supply to the supercapacitor. In case of a power failure the load device (Raspberry Pi or another SBC) is supplied from the supercapacitor via DC/DC converter working in step-up mode.
The second DC/DC converter is a Front-end step-down converter. The only function is converting a high input voltage down to 5.1V for the 5V rail. It is necessary to use the Front-end converter in case of an external power supply.
The Batteryless UPS for the Raspberry Pi – [Link]