QUOTE "i'm asking as i've been working on a design that to my understanding should've worked. i have a generic NPN restoring the supply voltage and feeding it's emitter output to a 2N2222 parallel to a charging capacitor for a delayed avalanche. somehow the avalanching only works when i swap the 2N2222 + charging capacitor sub-circuit to the collector side. it surprised me as when it was connected to emitter, it was also directly connected to ground. and when it was on the the collector side it was directly connected to the supply. so it was not isolated and would be biased to a common ground. although, as a side note, when it was on the emitter side, the charging capacitor might have caused a reverse current through the generic NPN and leaking to other parts of the circuit. so i probably should've put a diode in there. well i didn't get the chance to as i blew my 2N2222, so now i have to go to my local supplier to have more. charging". Are you suggesting that a circuit would not be better understood this convoluted description? (Note to Admin. Although I can get into the editing section, there is no way I can edit or cancel my post, so I am restating it. Also, you have no 'preview' button).