Jump to content
Electronics-Lab.com Community

Aman bharti

Members
  • Content Count

    23
  • Joined

  • Last visited

Everything posted by Aman bharti

  1. Zener diode working Zener diode Zener diode is a type of diode which flow of current also in reverse bias and in applications it always connected in reverse bias and zener diode limit the voltage, this diode is used for regulating the voltage in any circuit. It always works in zener breakdown voltage. Zener breakdown voltage is voltage level at this zener diode starts the current conduction in reverse bias. When reverse voltage increases then current conduction starts at a level, this level of voltage called breakdown voltage and the current flowing through diode is called zener current. This process is called avalanche breakdown . First we take a look on normal diode . A normal diode works only in forward bias, means voltage on cathode is less than anode . Voltage on anode is high with respect of cathode then it is called forward bias, in this condition a norml diode starts conduction. If voltage on anode is 2v and voltage on cathode is 0v or voltage on anode is 5v and 2v on cathode then conduction starts and diode will work , but if voltage on anode is 0v and voltage is on cathode is 2v then normal diode will not work and this is called reverse connection. In reverse bias after a limitation of current flow barrier break and a reverse current flow A normal diode only work in forward bias . If we give voltage more than breakdown voltage in reverse bias in normal diode then it will damage permanently. This drawback of normal diode removed in zener diode . A zener diode work as normal diode If it connected in forward bias . But zener diode also conducts current in reverse bias connection with specified condition. zener diode as voltage regulator We try to understand how zener diode works and regulate the voltage. V1 (BAT1) is a DC source , a load is connected and denoted as RL, a zener diode is connected across the RL through a resistor . In this circuit anode of zener diode is connected with negative terminal of battery and cathode of zener is connected with positive point of battery. So this connection is in reverse bias. 12v DC source or battery applied and R1 is 220 ohm , R2 is 470 ohm and an LED is connected with R1 as Load. Now we check the voltage at all resistors and load, voltage are divided at all resistor and load according to resistances at each point as divider formula. I connect three DC voltmeter at each resistor and load to measure the Voltage Drop at each part. As you see in the circuit diagram given Voltage drop across R1 = 3.114v, across R2= 6.65v and voltage drop at load (LED)=2.24v. so, 3.11v+6.65v+2.24v+6.65v=12v In this circuit arrangement the Total voltage across the load is 2.24v (Here load is LED). If i want to voltage at load load fix 3v But input source voltage remain 12v, then what should i do ? zener diode circuit Also read Logic gate concept For 3v output we should connect a 3v zener diode to parallel with output load . One thing is noted here that a resistor must connect before the zener as series with positive voltage . But here is a Question about this resistor , Why use this resistor ? Why do i connect a resistor with zener diode ? When we connect zener diode at output in reverse bias , then current through diode pass according to the source voltage. Here source voltage is 12v that is fix . If the source voltage increase then the current conduction through zener diode also increases and extra voltage drop at the resistor R2. If the source voltage vary then the current conduction through zener diode and resistor also vary and all varied extra voltage will drop at resistor R2 and we found a fix regulated voltage at output. So all extra voltage will drop at resistor that is connected in series with zener. It means according to applied input voltage increases, the zener diode allow to pass more current through itself by the series resistor therefore the current conduction through resistor and zener diode increase as per input voltage, and the point of zener diode we get regulated fix voltage as its rating. If you need 3v output then use 3v or 3.1v zener diode and according to if you need 5v then use 5.1v and 9v fzener for 9v output 12v zener for 12v output.....But applied input voltage Must higher than required output voltage because zener diode always works in breakdown region so for breakdown the applied voltage should higher than the breakdown voltage. There are limitation of current conduction capacity of each zener . Zener diode available in market at the rating of different watt with different voltages. The value of series resistor can be determined by using following given formula R=(Vin -Vz)/Iz Where R= Series resistor Vin= Applied input voltage Vz= Zener voltage (this is equal to Output voltage V0) Iz= Zener current Also read Active, Passive,Linear,Non-Linear ,Unilateral element etc
  2. Semiconductor P-N Junction Diode Working Principle Diode is the two terminal polarised electronic semiconductor device . One terminal is Anode(-) and other is Cathode(+). The cathode is marked with the silver colour or colour band. This is the simplest semiconductor device but this is very important and most useful in electronic circuits. Diode Function The main function of the semiconductor diode is the flow of electrons to totally in only one direction across it . It means Diode conducts current in only one direction. If change the polarity of diode then no any current passes through it. So we can say that diode is act as a switch which allow to conduction of current in only one direction. This is property of an Ideal Diode. An Ideal diode acts like short circuit with same polarity with supply, But in Reverse connection it acts like Open circuit means no any current flows in reverse polarity. The semiconductor Diode is formed by adding and apply a burning force or crystalization on together of P-type and n-Type materials (p-n junction). Joining of Both materials should of the same base - Ge or Si. The PN-junction is the basic root for semiconductor diodes . PN junction PN junction is made from a single piece of semiconductor of two different properties . One side is made to be P-type material and the other side is made with N-type. Both ends of the PN-junction have different properties. One end has an excess/majority of electrons and the other end has an excess/majority of holes. The p-type semiconductor is formed by adding trivalent impurities in pure or intrinsic semiconductor and n-type semiconductor is formed by adding pentavalent impurities in pure or intrinsic semiconductor. P-type materials have majority charge carriers of holes, and minority charge carriers of electrons. But in N-type materials have majority charge carriers of electrons and minority charge carriers of holes . Half part of a Si crystal is doped with trivalent impurity and half with pentavalent impurity, we get P-N junction diode. The border where p-type and n-region meets called the junction . The free electrons move from negative terminal (cathode) to the positive terminal (anode) . But the current flow direction is from positive terminal to the negative terminal. Forward bias- If p-terminal of diode is connected with positive supply and n-terminal is connected with negative supply then it is called forward bias. If the diode is forward biased, it allows the electric current flow. On the other hand, if the diode is reverse biased, it blocks the electric current flow. Reverse bias- When p- terminal of diode is connected with n-terminal of supply and n- terminal is connected with p, this connection is called Reverse bias connection. In this connection no Electrons flow and no current flows. • Depletion layer- Depletion layer created by the initial movement of majority carrier across the junction. Holes concentration on p- type and electron concentration on n-type are very high . Due to formation of p-n junction by diffusion electron moves from n-type to p-type and holes move from p-type to n-type. By the combination of electrons and holes at the junction creates ions, and there are presents only ions at the junction . Ions are non- movable. Therefore when holes passes to electrons through these ions, then +ve ions repels the holes and oppose it passing to electron, And created a resistance wall of very small width . This is called Depletion layer. Width of depletion increases in reverse bias connection. An electric field intensity is created with depletion layer. and the sign of this electric field is negative because the direction of electric fields is +ve to -ve. • Depletion layer consists +ve charge and –ve charge on either sides of junction. • Depletion layer opposes only the the majority carrier not minority carrier. • Depletion layer is also called Space charge region or transition region. • Depletion layer consists immobile charge particles. V-I Characteristics of Semiconductor P-N diode • Knee voltage- This is the minimum required voltage to start the conduction of current through diode. This is also known as cut-in voltage. This is the forward voltage at which the diode current starts increasing rapidly. The knee voltage of si diode is 0.7 voltage and 0.3v of Ge diode. • Breakdown voltage- This is the minimum amount of voltage of any insulator that makes it electrically conductor. In Reverse bias connection of pn diode. no any current flows through diode, but when we increase the reverse voltage level continuously Then diode get internally damage (breakdown) and start conduction at a fix level. Breakdown voltage is the minimum Amount of reverse bias voltage at which diode starts conduction in reverse bias connection. This breakdown characteristics of diode uses in Zener Diode which is always used in reverse bias and Limits the circuit voltage. • Doping- A material in pure form acts like insulator. So making it more conductive in nature we need to add some impurity to it. The process of adding impurities in pure (intrinsic material) is called doping to change their electrical properties.Generally trivalent and pentavalent elements are used to doping to semiconductor .When a semiconductor is doped with trivalent impurity(Boron,Aluminium) ,it becomes P-type semiconductor material. When dope any intrinsic material with Pentavalent impurity (phosphorus, arsenic,bismuth,antimony) then it becomes N-type semiconductor. • Reverse Saturation Current Both sides of p-n junction a very small amount of minority charge carrier present. P type minority charge carrier in n-type side and n-type minority charge carrier on p-type side.It also allows to flow a minority charge current. The current which is flowing by the minority carriers is called Reverse current. When a voltage applied on junction then further external reverse voltage flows due to minority charge carriers and this increases external voltage does not increases reverse current. At a voltage level where current goes on a fix maximum level and after Only voltage increases and curren does not increases . This is called reverse saturation current. Reverse saturation current remain constant with the increase of voltage, But when voltage will increase continuously then at a Level of voltage when junction will get breakdown and high reverse current will flow. Reverse saturation current depends on temperature. If temperature of junction increases , the minority charge carriers also increases. • The Width of Depletion Layer Practically The value of Depletion width vary from 0.1µm to 0.5µm Typical value of Depletion width is -0.5µm By increasing doping concentration Depletion layer width can Reduced electrons moves across the PN junction from the N-type to the P-type , they leave behind positively charged donor ions on the negative side. Holes from the acceptor impurity moves across the junction in the opposite direction into the region where there are large numbers of free electrons. As a result, the charge density of the P-type through the junction is filled with negatively charged acceptor ions , and the charge density of the N-type along with the junction becomes positive. This charge transfer of electrons and holes across the PN junction is known as diffusion . • Barrier potential/built in potential Simply Voltage form across the depletion layer is called the contact potential. The built-in potential in a semiconductor equals the potential across the depletion region in thermal equilibrium.This is also called built-in potential or barrier voltage/potential or potential hill or diffusion voltage. Contact potential always appear with in depletion layer It is noted as V0 or vbi. Contact potential of any diode can not measure by any instrument. V0 for Ge diode = 0.1v to 0.5v typically we use V0=0.2v V0 for Si diode = 0.6v to 0.9v typically V0= 0.7v Application of p-n junction diode • As Rectifier to convert AC to DC signal • Clipper circuit for clipping the signal (changing the wave shape) • To supply ( for protection from reverse supply) • Clamper circuit to restore the dc signal wave • As Voltage multiplier • In digital logic design • In Demodulation Circuits Other types of diode Photodiode, Zener Diode, Gunn Diode, Tunnel Diode. PIN Diode, Varactor Diode. Light Emitting Diode (LED), Schottky Diode, Laser Diode, Switching Diode. Also read 4017 Decade counter What is NOT Gate Inverter semiconductor diode.pdf
  3. What is impedance (circuitspedia.com) Impedance (Z) is similar to Resistance (R) . Impedance and Resistance both oppose the current in circuit. Both are almost the same thing , But resistance related to DC Circuit. Resistance oppose the steady electric current in DC circuit. Resistance remains same (constant) at any different frequency range. Impedance is related with AC circuit. Impedance vary according to changing the frequency, this is not constant at different frequency range. Impedance also includes reactance (Inductive and capacitive property of the circuit). Reactance - Reactance is the Resistance produced to AC Currents by Inductors and Capacitors only. This is a measure of the type of opposition to AC electricity due to capacitance or inductance. The impedance is denoted by Z and unit of it is Ohm (Ω). If the level of ohm is higher then level impedance is also higher. Impedance = Resistance + Reactance (Either inductive or Capacitive or both) In DC circuit, Impedance is effective Resistance of the circuit. Z= R In AC circuits, it possesses both magnitude and phase, unlike resistance, which has only magnitude. In the case of capacitor, When the frequency increased then the resistance (Impedance ) of capacitor decreases. In Inductor this is just opposite, When we increase the frequency range then Impedance increase in inductor. Impedance Impedance is defined as combination of resistance and reactance. As we cannot assume any circuit with DC Current without Resistance , We cannot assume a circuit with AC current without Impedance. Resistive Power- Energy burns by resistive power to Heat goes through that system , In Reactive Power- the energy goes to Antennas, Speaker, transmission line, cable etc represents how much energy to be stored and propagates. Not burn to heat ie Impedance. Resistance If there is Only Resistor is connected with Load in any circuit then is called Resistor. • Reactance If any circuit there is Only inductor or capacitor connected with load. Then the value of v/I is called reactance. In Reactance There are 2 cases (1) If inductor in connected then in this case reactance is called inductive reactance, and its value in scalar form XL = ѡL, and in vector form XL=JѡL Where ѡ=2Πf. Here If frequency is increased then the value of wL is also increased. (2) If Capacitor is connected then the Reactance is called Capacitive Reactance and it is denoted by (scalar form) Xc = In vector form Where If frequency (f) is increased then value of Xc is decreased. ie ω inversly proportional to 2Πf. ♦ Impedance – If Any circuit consist Resistance -Inductor. Or Resistance - Capacitor, Or Resistance-inductor-Capacitor. Then the value of v/I is called Impedance. It is denoted by If Resistor(R) and Inductor(L) connected –The value of Impedance (scaler form) In vector form Z= R+jωL If Resistor (R) and Capacitor(C) connected - Then Impedance And In vector form impedance If Resistor (R) , Inductor (L) capacitor (C) Connected - Then Impedance In vector form Phasor Diagram of Impedance Unit Impedance - Ω Reactance - Ω Resistance - Ω Download What is impedance .pdf also read What is 555 timer What is NOT Gate Logic
  4. LOGIC GATES Logic gates are the basic building elements of any digital systems or circuits. The name Logic gate is derived from the sense of the making decisions ability of such a device, and after making decisions it produce one output result. We can say that Logic gates are the fundamental building blocks of any digital circuits or digital systems. There are 3 basic Types of Logic gates – (1)-AND , (2)-OR , (3)-NOT Basically Logic gates are elementary electronic logic circuit that can make a variety of different types of circuits by interconnection of these three gates to perform complex logically operations of any computer. This is called logic design. Logic gates made a number of electronic devices and other digital components. In practical application of logic gates we see in the form of different Ics. These Ics are in LSI (Large scale integration), VLSI (Very large scale integration ) and SSI (Small scale integration) . Input and Outputs of Logic gates in only two levels called TRUE and FALSE , or HIGH and LOW, or ON and OFF, or very popular 0 and 1. High (1 or TRUE or ON) means +5v LOW(0 or FALSE or OFF) means 0v (or -ve supply) These 2 level logic also called Positive and Negative Logic. AND GATE AND gate has two or more than two inputs and only one Output. In AND gate Output is High or 1 only when each input of it has in HIGH state. Means output is 1 if only all inputs are at 1 level. If any one input goes at 0 level then the output of AND gate becomes 0 . Logic Symbol Input Variables are represented by A,B,C…… and the the output is written as X. In the Boolean expression it can be written as X=A.B.C……. It Can be read as X is equal to A and B and C ….or X is equal to A dot B dot C…. or X is equal to ABC….. Realization of AND Gate- AND gate may be realized by the using of diode and transistors. If it made by using diodes then it called as DL(Diode Logic) and if using transistors it called as RTL (Resistor Transistor Logic) . In the Diode Logic AND gate When the input A = +5v and input B is also +5v, in this case both diodes D1 and D2 are off (because of reverse mode). And therefore no current flows through resistor R. So no voltage drop occurs across R and voltage remain at the output is HIGH. When A=0, and B=0v or any one of A or B is 0v. Then the both diodes or corresponding Diode D1 or D2 are ON and the circuit is act as short circuit. In this condition the output X=LOW or 0v. RTL AND Gate circuit In the RTL AND gate or transistor gate, When A=0v and B=0v. Then the transistors Q1 and Q2 are off but transistor Q3 remain in ON, and the voltage at output is LOW or 0v because of Q3 ON and current pass through Q3 and voltage is dropped through R. If Any one of input A or B is high then Either Q1 or Either Q2 will off and then no voltage drop occurs at R. So Q3 Will remain in turn on and therefore output will LOW. If input A and input B both are HIGH then both transistors Q1 and Q2 will turn on and current passes through these transistors between ground and +5v and voltage will LOW at the collector pin of T1 and at input of Q3 . So Q3 will off and no voltage drop at collector pin and output will HIGH. At HIGH condition the voltage at output is approx 5v (X≈5v). Also read Ultrasonic Distance measurement project using Arduino OR gate- OR gate have also two or more than two inputs but only one output. The output is HIGH or 1 if even any one of input is 1. The output is o or LOW if all of its input is in LOW state or 0 . OR gate is defined as the device which output is o if any one of its input is 1. Must read What is NOT gate The Logic symbol for OR gate is +. The Boolean expression for the output can be written as X=A+B+C+…… This is written as X is equal to A plus B plus C or it can also be read as X is equal to A or B or C or ….. . Realization of OR gates can be made using Diodes(Diode Logic) or Transistors(RTL). In the diode or gate, when both input A and B=0v or LOW , then both diodes D1 And D2 are OFF state because of reverse biasing. So No any current pass Through R and No voltage drop will occur . Then the output X=0v . If both input or any one of both input are +5v . Then the corresponding diode D1 or D2 is On or both diode D1 and D2 are ON and short circuit occur across them. Therefore the output X is approx to +5v. voltage drop across diode is +5v-0.7v= 4.3v . But this is treated as HIGH or 1. In the Transistor (RTL) logic OR gate circuit, When both input A & B are 0v. Transistors Q1 and Q2 are OFF and Transistor Q3 is ON because of it get Base voltage through Resistor R1. So the output voltage at Collector pin of Q3 go 0v by dropping of voltage with ground at R2 . If any one of any input A or B is HIGH or 1 then the corresponding transistors in ON state . So voltage at the collector of that transistor goes to 0v by voltage drop and there is no any Base voltage at the Q3 and no any voltage drop occurs at R2 therefor the output is HIGH OR 1. The Universal Gates Universal gates are defined as Which logic gates can implement any types logic gates . There are two universal gates NAND and NOR. Both NAND and NOR gates can perform all the three basic logic functions of AND, OR, NOT. AOI (AND/OR/INVERT(NOT)) can be converted to NAND logic or NOR logic. Types of Universal Gates NAND Gate (NOT-AND) NAND gate is a combination of AND gate and NOT gate. If the output of AND gate is Inverted then it is called NAND gate. NAND = NOT AND. When AND output is NOTed or Inverted then it is called NAND gate. The output is 0 only if each inputs is 1 and output is 0 if any one of any input or all inputs are 0. Means when all inputs are 1 then output will 1 otherwise if different combination of input the output is 0. The boolean expression of NAND gate is written as X= This is read as X=A.B.C….whole bar. Realization of NAND gate- A two input NAND gate can be realized using Diode Transistor Logic. When the input A and B both are HIGH or +5v then both diodes are off and transistor get base voltage through R1 . So the transistor is ON and the output voltage at collector is 0v because of dropped voltage with ground. When Both input A and B are 0v then the both diode are in ON because of forward bias (here 0v means negative supply) . So Base voltage of transistor is 0v. So Transistor is in OFF and then the output is HIGH or approx +5v. NOR Gate When the output of OR gate is NOTed or inverted then it is called NOR gate. NOR means NOT OR. NOR gate is the combination of an OR gate and a NOT gate. The output is 1 or HIGH when only the both input is 0 or LOW. Otherwise output is 0. The boolean expression for the NOR gate is expressed as given below This is read as X is equal to A plus B plus C plus .....whole bar. Realization of NOR gate- For more circuits and tutorials click here Two input RTL(Resistor transistor logic) NOT gate can be realized using two transistors and resistors. When Input A and B both are 0. A=0 and B=0. Then both transistors are OFF because no base voltage get. So no current flows through transistors and no voltage drop occurs. Therefore only current passes through R the output is HIGH. Also read Arduino remote control AC load
  5. LOGIC GATES Logic gates are the basic building elements of any digital systems or circuits. The name Logic gate is derived from the sense of the making decisions ability of such a device, and after making decisions it produce one output result. We can say that Logic gates are the fundamental building blocks of any digital circuits or digital systems. There are 3 basic Types of Logic gates – (1)-AND , (2)-OR , (3)-NOT Basically Logic gates are elementary electronic logic circuit that can make a variety of different types of circuits by interconnection of these three gates to perform complex logically operations of any computer. This is called logic design. Logic gates made a number of electronic devices and other digital components. In practical application of logic gates we see in the form of different Ics. These Ics are in LSI (Large scale integration), VLSI (Very large scale integration ) and SSI (Small scale integration) . Input and Outputs of Logic gates in only two levels called TRUE and FALSE , or HIGH and LOW, or ON and OFF, or very popular 0 and 1. High (1 or TRUE or ON) means +5v LOW(0 or FALSE or OFF) means 0v (or -ve supply) These 2 level logic also called Positive and Negative Logic. AND GATE AND gate has two or more than two inputs and only one Output. In AND gate Output is High or 1 only when each input of it has in HIGH state. Means output is 1 if only all inputs are at 1 level. If any one input goes at 0 level then the output of AND gate becomes 0 . Logic Symbol Input Variables are represented by A,B,C…… and the the output is written as X. In the Boolean expression it can be written as X=A.B.C……. It Can be read as X is equal to A and B and C ….or X is equal to A dot B dot C…. or X is equal to ABC….. Realization of AND Gate- AND gate may be realized by the using of diode and transistors. If it made by using diodes then it called as DL(Diode Logic) and if using transistors it called as RTL (Resistor Transistor Logic) . In the Diode Logic AND gate When the input A = +5v and input B is also +5v, in this case both diodes D1 and D2 are off (because of reverse mode). And therefore no current flows through resistor R. So no voltage drop occurs across R and voltage remain at the output is HIGH. When A=0, and B=0v or any one of A or B is 0v. Then the both diodes or corresponding Diode D1 or D2 are ON and the circuit is act as short circuit. In this condition the output X=LOW or 0v. RTL AND Gate circuit In the RTL AND gate or transistor gate, When A=0v and B=0v. Then the transistors Q1 and Q2 are off but transistor Q3 remain in ON, and the voltage at output is LOW or 0v because of Q3 ON and current pass through Q3 and voltage is dropped through R. If Any one of input A or B is high then Either Q1 or Either Q2 will off and then no voltage drop occurs at R. So Q3 Will remain in turn on and therefore output will LOW. If input A and input B both are HIGH then both transistors Q1 and Q2 will turn on and current passes through these transistors between ground and +5v and voltage will LOW at the collector pin of T1 and at input of Q3 . So Q3 will off and no voltage drop at collector pin and output will HIGH. At HIGH condition the voltage at output is approx 5v (X≈5v). Also read Ultrasonic Distance measurement project using Arduino OR gate- OR gate have also two or more than two inputs but only one output. The output is HIGH or 1 if even any one of input is 1. The output is o or LOW if all of its input is in LOW state or 0 . OR gate is defined as the device which output is o if any one of its input is 1. Must read What is NOT gate The Logic symbol for OR gate is +. The Boolean expression for the output can be written as X=A+B+C+…… This is written as X is equal to A plus B plus C or it can also be read as X is equal to A or B or C or ….. . Realization of OR gates can be made using Diodes(Diode Logic) or Transistors(RTL). In the diode or gate, when both input A and B=0v or LOW , then both diodes D1 And D2 are OFF state because of reverse biasing. So No any current pass Through R and No voltage drop will occur . Then the output X=0v . If both input or any one of both input are +5v . Then the corresponding diode D1 or D2 is On or both diode D1 and D2 are ON and short circuit occur across them. Therefore the output X is approx to +5v. voltage drop across diode is +5v-0.7v= 4.3v . But this is treated as HIGH or 1. In the Transistor (RTL) logic OR gate circuit, When both input A & B are 0v. Transistors Q1 and Q2 are OFF and Transistor Q3 is ON because of it get Base voltage through Resistor R1. So the output voltage at Collector pin of Q3 go 0v by dropping of voltage with ground at R2 . If any one of any input A or B is HIGH or 1 then the corresponding transistors in ON state . So voltage at the collector of that transistor goes to 0v by voltage drop and there is no any Base voltage at the Q3 and no any voltage drop occurs at R2 therefor the output is HIGH OR 1. The Universal Gates Universal gates are defined as Which logic gates can implement any types logic gates . There are two universal gates NAND and NOR. Both NAND and NOR gates can perform all the three basic logic functions of AND, OR, NOT. AOI (AND/OR/INVERT(NOT)) can be converted to NAND logic or NOR logic. Types of Universal Gates NAND Gate (NOT-AND) NAND gate is a combination of AND gate and NOT gate. If the output of AND gate is Inverted then it is called NAND gate. NAND = NOT AND. When AND output is NOTed or Inverted then it is called NAND gate. The output is 0 only if each inputs is 1 and output is 0 if any one of any input or all inputs are 0. Means when all inputs are 1 then output will 1 otherwise if different combination of input the output is 0. The boolean expression of NAND gate is written as X= This is read as X=A.B.C….whole bar. Realization of NAND gate- A two input NAND gate can be realized using Diode Transistor Logic. When the input A and B both are HIGH or +5v then both diodes are off and transistor get base voltage through R1 . So the transistor is ON and the output voltage at collector is 0v because of dropped voltage with ground. When Both input A and B are 0v then the both diode are in ON because of forward bias (here 0v means negative supply) . So Base voltage of transistor is 0v. So Transistor is in OFF and then the output is HIGH or approx +5v. NOR Gate When the output of OR gate is NOTed or inverted then it is called NOR gate. NOR means NOT OR. NOR gate is the combination of an OR gate and a NOT gate. The output is 1 or HIGH when only the both input is 0 or LOW. Otherwise output is 0. The boolean expression for the NOR gate is expressed as given below This is read as X is equal to A plus B plus C plus .....whole bar. Realization of NOR gate- For more circuits and tutorials click here Two input RTL(Resistor transistor logic) NOT gate can be realized using two transistors and resistors. When Input A and B both are 0. A=0 and B=0. Then both transistors are OFF because no base voltage get. So no current flows through transistors and no voltage drop occurs. Therefore only current passes through R the output is HIGH. Also read Arduino remote control AC load
  6. In this project, a complete design and development procedure of a digital thermometer has been discussed. The algorithm used in this design is simple and easy to understand. The components used are limited and readily available in the market. Although the overall development of this project is lowcost and easy still the results are extraordinary. Let’s see how this design works. Arduino and LM35 based digital thermometers can be developed at home with very few components and instruments needed. Arduino UNO used in this design is a microcontroller which is responsible for data handling and processing for temperature calculation and display. Arduino UNO has digital I/O and Analog pins. In this case, we are using both. The next component is LM35 which is a temperature sensor and looks more like a simple BJT. LM35 is cheap as compared to most of the temperature sensors and yet offers a high level of accuracy even at extreme temperatures. LM35 can be used in both analog circuits and embedded systems since it offers analog voltages at the output. The circuit diagram described in this simulation video is simple and can be easily modified if needed. Click For Full Project Detail Simulation Video Testing Video Click for Coding and full project detail .
  7. This is modified circuit and also again tested You are right Sir But i also surprised to this circuit works without that resistor which you connect here. This is tested on breadboard with and without this resistor When i connect that that resistor then the output goes very low and circuit is less sensitive I also tested this circuit with 3-6v I never want to place any circuit with wrong information ----------------------------------------------------- This Inverter circuit is given from a trusted youtube channel on the robotics. He is showing in video on breadboard using this circuit. As name this is a simple inverter, so how this can powerful and regulated ???? Output Power is Also Depend on Transformer Ampere. In text also advised to use minimum of 1 A Transformer, not only 1 A Your corrected circuit is correct but my circuit is not wrong. One BD140 PNP transistor was also connected as here on that video.
  8.  This circuit is 100% working. This is simplified diagram

    No Any Direct Supply given on ic , Resistor is used

    volume control connection is right. Check again

    Which inverter circuit is wrong, tell me . 

    I will modify if any wrong  

    1. audioguru

      audioguru

      The volume control in your amplifier schematic is backwards. When it is turned down then instead of simply making a voltage divider with the signal, it shorts the input signal's high frequencies to ground but allows very low frequencies to be amplified.

    2. Aman bharti

      Aman bharti

      This diagram is only for instructional. These common matters are understand by reader.

  9. 100% working This diagram was given by one user that used already this circuit at home by implement from This diagram. No Direct supply given on ic. capacitor may only one issue Which inverter circuit is wrong , please tell me , I will checked and modifiy This diagram is given by one user that used already this project at home by implement from This diagram. Which inverter circuit is wrong , please tell me , I will check and modify
  10. 4558 ic Audio Power Amplifier Circuit Diagram circuitspedia.com This is circuit diagram of powerful audio amplifier. This circuit is given by Emmanuel. In this circuit one ic 4558 and 4 Power transistors are used with some discrete components. Use 20v-to 60v for operating this circuit. This is a single channel audio amplifier circuit. Use capacitor of minimum 50v value. Positive supply voltage is given at the middle pin of both transistor TIP41C and D718. Negative supply is given at middle terminal of D688and TI42C Transistor. R1 is the variable resistor potentiometer for volume control. This vol. control may be value of 50k to 100k. Use Big size speaker with this circuit. 4558 Audio Amplifier Circuit Diagram. In image of assembled kit there is no 5w resistor connected 100% Working for more Amplifier circuit click here
  11. This is an Automatic submersible Motor controller circuit using transistor • The Main Advantage Of this Project Is To All Three LEDs Are Glowing One by One. Only One LED is Glowing At One Level And Other Two Are in Off state. Below is a modified ckt that has advantage of Motor will Again start only if the water level goes to less than half Click here for full detail For more circuits go to www.circuitspedia.com
  12. http://www.circuitspedia.com/blinking-led-flasher-circuit-diagram-with-555/ http://www.circuitspedia.com/simple-5-led-blinker-flasher-circuit-blinking-led-running-chaser-light/ 17 LED Sequencer/Flasher Circuit using 2 Counter ic 4017 Dual colour led flasher circuit For more circuit go to circuitspedia.com
  13. The LM3914 is a monolithic integrated circuit that senses analog voltage levels and drives 10 LEDs, providing a linear analog display. This ic is used for Dot and Bar Display. A single pin changes the display from a moving dot to a bar graph. Current drive to the LEDs is regulated and programmable, eliminating the need for resistors. This feature is one that allows operation of the whole system from less than 3V. From datasheet – The linear scaling of the output thresholds makes the device usable, for example, as a voltmeter. In the basic configuration it provides a ten step scale which is expandable to over 100 segments with other LM3914 ICs in series. The simplified LM3914 block diagram is to give the general idea of the circuit’s operation. A high input impedance buffer operates with signals from ground to 12V, and is protected against reverse and overvoltage signals. The signal is then applied to a series of 10 comparators; each of which is biased to a different comparison level by the resistor string. For more detail Click Here .
  14. Homemade MIC Amplifier Loudspeaker connection circuit You can connect condenser MIC with any amplifier circuit as given below diagram . This circuit will work very well with any type of Audio amplifier. Use only 3-5v for condenser MIC for best result. Audio amplifier circuit need 6-24v as per amplifier specification. Connect the positive terminal of mic with 22k resistor in series with positive supply and negative terminal of mic is directly connected to negative supply or ground. And enjoy this easy homemade MIC Loudspeaker. This Circuit works with any type of amplifier circuit. If you have no any audio amplifier then you can make an small amplifier very easily with LM386 ic. This is very popular amplifier ic and available on any electronic part store. For more Click here You can check for more simple circuit here circuitspedia.com
  15. 10A High Current Adjustable Voltage Regulator using LT1038 http://www.circuitspedia.com/10a-high-current-adjustable-voltage-regulator-circuit-diagram-using-lt1038/
  16. http://www.circuitspedia.com/transistor-as-switch-working-how-transistor-works/ For more detail click here A small Positive current required at the Base terminal for the turning on the transistor. By sending varying levels of current to the base, the amount of current flowing through the collector to emitter may be regulated. When we apply a small Positive supply at base , then Current between emitter and collector will passed and we say that transistor is turn on. A very small amount of current may be used to control a large amount of current, this property is known as amplifier . . A Diode with Parallel of relay coil in reverse connection is necessary for protection the transsistor. This must connected on both PNP and NPN
  17. When Light fall on LDR in DAY then the Resistance of LDR goes LOW And at this situation the maximum voltage Dropped With Negative supply (Ground) by cross through LDR and Voltage at the Base of transistor Q1 is Very LOW. When the Voltage goes to very LOW (Below0.7v) at BASE of Q1 then Transistor not get ON and no Power flows between COLLECTOR and EMITTER. Gate Voltagr of TRIAC is LOW. Now TRIAC Remain OFF Because It not TRIGGERED. At Night Time when no light incident on LDR then the internal Resistance of LDR comes HIGH and Very less amount of Power cross through LDR to ground , then the Voltage At base Terminal of transistor become increase (above 0.7v) and now transistor turn ON and current starts flow between Emitter and COLLECTOR. Therefor the Voltage increasing at GATE of TRIAC BT136. As voltage increase at GATE then TRIAC get Triggered . After Triac triggerd it Turn on and Passes the Power Supply between terminal 2 to terminal 1 and Bulb Switched On. For more sensitivity use 2 LDR with parallel. For more detail go to http://www.circuitspedia.com/automatic-light-controlled-bulb-switch-using-without-relay/ And also go to http://www.circuitspedia.com/category/light-operated-switch-circuit/
  18. DC FAN Motor Speed Controller Regulator Circuit Works ON Principle of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique , By Using This Technique Controlling Of DC Motor Speed is very Smoothly And Noise Free. Tested on 12v 1 A DC Motor For Full detail with live demo click on http://www.circuitspedia.com/dc-fan-speed-regulator-circuit/ By This Method Smoothly Controlled The Speed Of DC Motor At Negligible Noise BY using This Circuit You can control the speed of DC Fan by tunning the (Potentiometer) volume control variable resistance. These circuits are based on 555 Timer .
  19. High Sensitive Clap Operated Sound controlled ON OFF Switch Project This clap operated ON OFF Switch circuit is very sensitive and easily operated upto distance of 5 Meter If condenser MIC is fix into a Special type of Cover to Receiving More Sound From Maximum Distance. This Clap/Sound controlled ON OFF Switch circuit consists two ICs , two NPN transistors, One PNP Transistor and some other components. The LM358 and 4017 ic is used. LM358 is an opamp-comparator which has two Op-Amp in a single ic chip. This ic is dual operational Amplifier But in this circuit one op-amp is used. For Full detail click on link http://www.circuitspedia.com/sensitive-clap-operated-on-off-switch-circuit-without-microcontroller/
  20. Check For Electronics ideas,circuits and projects on http://www.circuitspedia.com/
  21. Here a link of very simple and effective remote controlled switch for any appliance (single load) without any microcontroller. Click here This circuit can constructed at home using CD4017 ic and IR sensor. very easily and operated with any TV Remote. ( Tested, Must see the demo video ) http://www.circuitspedia.com/ir-remote-controlled-switch/
×
×
  • Create New...