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As we all know, in every smart device, the chip plays a vital role. Whether it is a PC, a smart phone or a smart wearable device, the CUP is an indispensable core component. But for such a small thing, China is currently unable to effectively mass-produce it. Sometimes a thing is too small, it does not mean that it is easy to manufacture, let alone a chip, which requires nanoscale technology to control, which is beyond the reach of manpower. In an IC chip, the most important thing is the transistor, which is equivalent to the nervous system in the human brain. The more transistors, the faster the chip's operation speed. Therefore, how to put more transistors in such a small place has become a difficult problem. The basic unit of a chip - the transistor The so-called transistor is a semiconductor device commonly used in amplifiers or electronically controlled switches. Because of their fast response speed and high accuracy, they can be used for a variety of digital and analog functions, including amplification, switching, voltage regulation, signal modulation, and oscillators. Transistors can be packaged individually or in a very small area that can hold a hundred million or more transistors as part of an integrated circuit, which is why so many transistors can be integrated in a CPU. As early as 1929, then engineer Lillian Feld had obtained a patent for a transistor. However, due to the technical level of the year, transistors could not be manufactured. It wasn't until December 1947 that the world's first practical semiconductor device was fabricated at Bell Laboratories, and in its first experiments, the transistor was able to amplify audio signals by 100 watts, and was shaped like a matchstick. In 1950, the first "PN junction transistor" (the PN junction is the junction of the P-type and the N-type, the P-type has many holes, and the N-type has many electrons, which will be discussed below) finally came out. Today's transistors , most still belong to this PN junction transistor.