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  1. The 555 timer is a medium-sized integrated circuit developed by Signetics in 1972 to replace mechanical timers. It is named after the input is designed with three 5kΩ resistors. This circuit later became popular in the world. At present, there are four popular products: two BJTs: 555, 556 (with two 555); two CMOS: 7555, 7556 (containing two 7555). The 555 Timer is a mid-scale integrated device that combines analog and digital functions. It is called 555, which is usually fabricated by bipolar (TTL) process. It is called 7555 by complementary metal oxide (CMOS) process. In addition to single timer, there is corresponding double timer 556/7556. Its power supply voltage range is wide and can operate from 4.5V to 16V, the 7555 can operate from 3 to 18V, and the output drive current is approximately 200mA, so its output is compatible with TTL, CMOS or analog circuit levels. The 555 chip is an extremely versatile chip with up to hundreds of different applications including time-base timing or switching and voltage controlled oscillators and regulators. For those who have been exposed to digital or analog circuits, the 555 chip is definitely a classic. With its low cost and reliable performance, it is widely used in various electrical appliances, including instrumentation, household appliances, electric toys, and automatic control. Its various pin functions are as follows: Pin 1: external power supply negative terminal VSS or ground, under normal grounding. Pin 2: Low trigger terminal TL, this pin voltage is valid when it is less than 1/3 VCC. Pin 3: output OUT. Pin 4: directly clear the terminal RST. When this terminal is connected to a low level, the time base circuit does not work. At this time, regardless of the level of TL and TH, the time base circuit output is “0”, and the terminal should be connected to a high level during normal operation. Pin 5: CO is the control voltage terminal. If the pin is externally connected, the reference voltage of the two internal comparators can be changed. When the pin is not used, the pin should be grounded into a 0.01μF (103) ceramic capacitor to prevent high frequency interference. Pin 6: High trigger terminal TH, this pin is valid when the voltage is greater than 2/3 VCC. Pin 7: discharge end. This terminal is connected to the collector of the discharge tube T and serves as a discharge pin for the capacitor at the time of the timer. Pin 8: external power supply VCC, bipolar time base circuit VCC range is 4.5 -16V, CMOS type time base circuit VCC range is 3-18V, generally 5V.
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