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  1. Best Arduino sensors - for beginners electronics projects What is Sensor? A Sensor is a device used as the primary element that measures physical value and converts it into an electrical signal. Also, we can say that the sensor is a transducer. It measures temperature, distance, light, sound, etc. Sensors and actuators widely used in Arduino projects. These sensors come with a kit or can be purchased separately. Some of them are compatible with Arduino Uno boards and also Raspberry Pi and other electronics modules. There are lots of Arduino sensors kits available in the market. How many types of Arduino Sensors? There are a lot of sensors used in electronics projects, e.g. robotics cars, moving objects, flying drones, IoT(internet of things), sound and light operated, etc. Here a list of 45 in 1 electronic sensor that comes with an Arduino sensors kit, and the details of their applications. Analog temperature Sensors KY 013 temperature sensor KY-013 is an analog temperature sensor module. It includes an NTC (negative temperature coefficient) thermistor. KY-13 used a bead-type thermistor, made with platinum and alloy materials. It can measure temperature from -55°C to +155°C. Digital temperature module Digital temperature Sensor The digital temperature sensor contains DS18B20, a digital thermometer used for measuring the temperature of any substance. Digital temperature module This is a KY-028 module used with an Arduino for temperature indication purposes. NTC thermistor is the main sensor and LM393 a dual differential comparator (use two inputs, after comparison, the larger value to be sent to output). Temperature and Humidity module This is a DHT11 sensor for temperature and humidity measurement. The range for temperature measurement is 0 to 50 ℃. Operating voltage from 3.3 to 5V DC. The humidity measuring range is 20 to 95% RH(relative humidity). Arduino IR sensor IR sensor contains infrared led (transmitter) and receiver led (photodiode). It transmits infrared light, and a photodiode detects the light. We used a potentiometer for distance adjustment. Light Dependent Resistor(LDR) LDR works on the principal photoconductivity. It is a light sensor that is used in automatic light-operated circuits. As it gets light on its surface, it generates a few electrons. Joystick Module Joystick module used in robotics projects. It has an x-axis, y-axis angle, and switch option. It is very useful for robotics arms and moving objects. Metal Touch Sensor It is a KY- 036 metal touch sensor used as a detection sensor. If a person/human body touches this sensor tip, it will trigger and generate an output. We can use a Led as an indication or buzzer for a sound alarm. It has a MOSFET(touch sensor) and LM386(amplifier). Sound sensor This is a high-sensitivity, sound sensor module. It has a condenser mic and is used for sound detection. Arduino Laser sensor Arduino laser sensors are very useful for switching projects. It's based on the detection of motion. It also comes with a transmitter and receiver. Arduino optical switch Arduino optical switch used in counting projects. It also used for interrupting devices, measuring, and counting RPM purposes. Passive buzzer sensor The passive sensor is used for beep/sound alarm for many electronic circuits. It is known as the KY-012 module. It required only low DC voltage(1.5 ~ 12) to activate. Vibration sensor A vibration sensor is a very simple module used to sense minor vibration. We can use it at the main door. Arduino Shock sensor This sensor is known as a knock sensor and a shock sensor. We used it for door-opening projects. Arduino component kit We use many electronic pieces of equipment in our routine life that may include Arduino sensors or other electronic IoT sensors and actuators. If we learn how to use them, we can understand the principle behind devices.
  2. 788bs Led Matrix Pinout There are several types of led matrix displays available in the market. We can understand it in size and types, e.g. 5x7, 8x8, common anode, and common cathode type. But in this article, I will discuss 788bs as a common anode 8x8 red color matrix Modules. We use it in many electronics displaying items, e.g. electronics clocks. also for moving message displays, displaying games, etc. We use dot matrix display with an Arduino UNO board directly, sometimes in projects. But for some projects, we use a max7219 chip or 74hc595 for dot matrix driver as required in our projects. 8x8 dot Matrix Pinout details The dot-matrix modules most of the time comes in red color. It is very easy to attach with an Arduino board as compared to RGB led. If we look at a piece of the 8x8 dot matrix, it contains 16 pins in which 8 pins used for rows and 8 for columns out of 64 Led. We start from Pin # 1 to pin # 8. Pin number 1 is R5 (Row-5) and Pin number 8 is R3 (Row-3) at the downside. At the upper side From Pin 9 (Row-1) to Pin 16 (column-1) located. But a newbie always confuses and starts from zero, because we know the picture/diagram. often we get from some source, also we have to sort out which one +VE and -VE. might be an expert can understand from common cathode/anode type. But my concern about the person has a basic knowledge of electronics. Who try to make their own initial display projects like a clock or some more. Ok, let’s start if we have an 8x8 dot matrix and how do we know where pin 1 is? As in IC Chips near Pin 1, a dot mentioned at IC/Microcontroller Chip. But here, how do we know? At the led dot matrix, the manufacturer writes the tag or mark at pin 1 side, as shown in the figure. We can find it. And also a curve mentioned at pin number 1 side. Row = + Positive Supply Column = - Negative Supply The testing power supply should be 1.5V DC required. it means only one battery cell enough or uses one 130 ohm resistance in series at a positive/negative side. After that attached led to the power supply. We found that the 8th column and 5th rows led become ON as Connection shown in the figure. How to connect the battery cell with a matrix display. Pin Test of led dot matrix As shown in fig pin # 1 and pin # 16 got Energize and 8th Column and 5th-row led become ON. We should verify the Dot-matrix before using because if any led blows we can change. Programming with Arduino UNO To run the 788bs, you need to check it with Arduino UNO. What material you need to perform a complete test. Arduino UNO Amazon Breadboard Amazon / Banggood 788BS 8x8 matrix Amazon / Banggood Battery (1.5V) only one Jumper wires The dot matrix display often used with the shift register 74HC595 led driver or max7219. most common in electronic Circuits, we operate it with a Microcontroller or Arduino platform, and even with Raspberry Pi. But in this circuit, you can test the matrix direct with an Arduino UNO board. Interface dot matrix with Arduino First setting up the matrix circuit, as per the connection given in the picture diagram. start the Arduino IDE to program the Arduino UNO board. Arduino IDE is available at Arduino official site. For this circuit, it does not need resistance at all. Just connect wires as per given instruction. here you need two steps before starting a matrix connection with Arduino. as per the 788bs datasheet, matrix pins connection given. 1- 8x8 led matrix code generator This will help to generate code for your matrix. Just draw anything for the matrix, copy the code, and use it in your program. You can draw different symbols, shapes, or words. 2- Add matrix library with Arduino Ide First, add the 8x8 led dot matrix library in Arduino Ide. After that, the library manager in Arduino Ide will run the code. It will display in the matrix. Connection Diagram 788bs matrix and Arduino UNO Matrix Rows Pins # ------------ Arduino Uno Pins # Pin # 1 ---------- 2 2 ---------- 3 3 ---------- 4 4 ---------- 5 5 ---------- 6 6 ---------- 7 7 ---------- 8 8 ---------- 9 Matrix Column: Pins # ----------------- Arduino Uno Pins # Pin # 1 -------------10 2 ------------- 11 3 ------------- 12 4 ------------- 13 5 ------------- A1 6 ------------- A2 7 ------------- A3 8 ------------- A4
  3. MQTT is a machine-to-machine (M2M)/"Internet of Things" (IOT) connectivity protocol. It was designed as an extremely lightweight publish/subscribe messaging transport. With an Arduino-compatible wireless soc, e.g. Realtek Ameba1 (RTL8195/RTL8710) dev. Board, we can create a MQTT client that sends our sensor data to the cloud or any other MQTT clients. The source code is available on github at, https://github.com/ambiot/amb1_arduino/blob/master/Arduino_package/hardware/libraries/MQTTClient/examples/mqtt_basic/mqtt_basic.ino The things that need to take note of, · The "mqttServer" refers to the MQTT-Broker, we use the MQTT sandbox "test.mosquitto.org", it is provided by IBM eclipse for developers to test MQTT. · "clientId" is an identifier for MQTT-Broker to identify the connected device. · "publishTopic" is the topic of the published message, we use "outTopic" in the example. The devices subscribe to "outTopic" will receive the message. · "publishPayload" is the content to be published. · "subscribeTopic" is to tell MQTT-broker which topic we want to subscribe to. Here we can use a chrome plugin "MQTTLens" to be a second MQTT client. You can find it in Chrome Web Store at, https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/mq-tt-lens-the-best/cgmogjdjpnemdlijokkdomfapcodiohh?utm_source=chrome-ntp-icon After setting up a “connection” and key in the same topics we used on Ameba, we should be able to see a “Hello World” message printed on the MQTT message console.
  4. infrared signal is used as the "trigger" for the operation of dc motors(or any other appropriate devices eg:LEDs). i have used the arduino uno as the microcontroller as it simply does the job!also it's cheap too!! future application will ultimately lead to IR controlled robot,and perhaps controlling of human mind using nothing but a simple remote control and interfacing hardware with electrodes,so that the physically disabled can attain normal "motor" functions.thanks.
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