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  8. Yes, it's certainly the sort of level I'd expect. Which brings me full circle to my earlier question, why am I getting only 3V across my water cell terminals when your simulation and your ignition coil experiments show much more? I also need accounting assignment help which I browse https://my-assignment.help/accounting-assignment-help/ site to finish the task. Keep it up!
  9. In my last tutorial I created a NodeMCU based Duino Coin Miner. It is an awesome little miner that sits on my desk and mines few cents a day. However, adding these miners to my home network choked my WiFi router. Home Appliances and Smart Devices connected to the router constantly started dropping off. To my understanding, most of the wireless routers and access points can support upto 250 devices connected at once. So, what's happening here? To clarify my doubts I called my ISP. The answer they gave was absolutely shocking. "ONLY 30 devices can successfully connect and exchange data via their router at any given time". Bloody hell!! So, to overcome this limitation I added another router to the network to scale up the load. But, I was not happy with this solution. So, I did a bit of research and found this "NRF24L01 RF Transceiver Module" which I can use to create a mesh of wirelessly connected microcontrollers. In this tutorial, I am going to show you guys how to use this transceiver module to add wireless communication between two or more Arduino boards. I will be using this module for many of my upcoming home automation projects. Bang Problem solved.. What is a NRF24L01 RF Transceiver Module? So far, I have always used WiFi for wireless communication between microcontrollers. While this is easy enough to do, it is not exactly suitable for battery operated nodes. WiFi modules consume a lot of current when transmitting data plus they also have a slight delay when initiating the transmission as the module has to first connect to the WiFi network. After getting crippled by the abilities of my wireless router, I found this cheap, very popular and widely used "RF Transceiver Module" which you can hook up to any microcontroller (MCU). This module is called a RF transceiver because a single module can work both as a transmitter and a receiver. The module operates at a frequency of 2.4GHz, which is one of the ISM band which means it is open to use in most of the countries around the World. Data transfer rate is between 250kbps to 2Mbps baud. Power consumption? This module is designed for ultra low power wireless applications. It has 2 power saving modes operating at 22uA Standby-I mode and 900nA in power down mode - which makes these modules suitable for battery operated nodes. The high air data rate combined with two power saving modes makes the nRF24L01 module very suitable for ultra low power designs. The power consumption of this module is just around 12 milliamps during transmission (TX) which is even lower than a single led. Operating voltage is between 1.9V to 3.6V. All other pins on this board are 5V tolerant making it easy to connect to an Arduino without using a logic level converter. It has an integrated (on chip) voltage regulator. The Range of this module as per its datasheet is 100m but it works up to 50 to 60 meters in real world conditions. The module has 125 independent RF channels giving the possibility to have a network of "125 independently working modems" in one place. Each channel can have up to "6 addresses or 6 data pipes" or in other words, each unit can communicate with up to 6 other units at the same time (1:6 star networks). The module is configured and operated through a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). It uses Enhanced ShockBurst™ for automatic packet assembly and timing, automatic acknowledgement and retransmission of packets. Enhanced ShockBurst™ enables the implementation of ultra low power, high performance communication with low cost host microcontrollers. The features enable significant improvements of power efficiency for bi-directional and uni-directional systems, without adding complexity on the host controller side. The module used in this video has an in-built PCB antenna making it compact. However, you can also buy a variant that supports an external antenna allowing much higher range of about 1000M in line of sight. nRF24L01 Pinout Now, lets have a look at the pinouts and specifications of the NRF24L01 module: GND: is the Ground Pin. It is placed inside a square for easy identification. VCC: supplies power to the module. Voltage can range from 1.9v to 3.9v. So, you can connect it directly to the 3.3V pin of our Arduino. Remember connecting it to a 5V pin will likely destroy your nRF24L01+ module! CE: (Chip Enable) is an active-HIGH pin. When selected the module will either transmit or receive, depending upon which mode it is currently in. CSN: (Chip Select Not) is an active-LOW pin and is normally kept HIGH. When this pin goes low, the module begins listening on its SPI port for data and processes it accordingly. SCK: (Serial Clock) it accepts clock pulses provided by the SPI bus Master. MOSI: (Master Out Slave In) It is SPI input to the module. It is used to receive data from the microcontroller. MISO: (Master In Slave Out) It is SPI output from the module. It is used to send data to the microcontroller. IRQ: It is the interrupt pin that alerts the master when new data is available to process. Setup and Schematic In order to get this working, we need two such NRF24L01 Modules and two Arduino Boards. For this tutorial I am going to use 2 Arduino Nanos. Just remember, we cannot use a breadboard with these modules because the pin spacing on these modules are not enough to place it in the middle and if you place it anywhere else, then you will end up shorting the pins. This means that you will either have to solder the wires directly to the modules or use some sort of jumper cables. The connection is exactly the same on both the transmitter and receiver end. Connect the GND pin to -ve and VCC pin to 3.3v pin of Arduino. The signals generated by these modules are very sensitive to power supply noises. So, adding a decoupling capacitor (anything from 10uF to 100uF) across the power supply line is always a very good idea. Then connect the CSN pin to D8, CE to D9, MOSI to D11, MISO to D12, and SCK to D13 pin of the Arduino. Since the nRF24L01+ module requires a lot of data transfer, it will give the best performance when connected to the hardware SPI pins on the microcontroller. Note that each Arduino board has different SPI pins that must be connected accordingly. Have a look at the table onscreen for quick understanding. Library Used For this tutorial I am going to use the "TMRh20/RF24" OSI Layer-2 driver for nRF24L01 on Arduino & Raspberry Pi/Linux Devices. You can download the library from the link provided in the description below: https://github.com/tmrh20/RF24/. Code 1 - Sending Text In my first example, I am going to send a character array from one module to the other. Using a split screen I am going to demonstrate this example. On my left is the Transmitter Code and on my right is the Receiver Code. Lets start by including the "SPI library" followed by the "RF modules library" downloaded from github in the code. Then we are creating a RF24 object by passing the CSN and CE as the two arguments to the radio() function. Next, we are creating an array of the addresses that the modules will use to communicate amongst themselves. The address can literally be anything, however, it has to be the "same" on both the transmitter and the receiver modules. This is how the RF modules know who they have to communicate with. In the setup section we first initialize the radio object. Then, using the radio.openWritingPipe() function we set the address of the transmitter which we will use to send data to the receiver module. On the receiving end we use the radio.openReadingPipe() function with the same address to read the data from the data pipe. Next we set the power amplifier level. Since the modules in this demo are sitting next to each other, I am using the "Minimum Level". Next, in the transmitter code we need to tell the module to stop listening using the radio.stopListening() function. This sets the module as a transmitter. On the receiver module we need to start listening using the radio.startListening() function. This sets the module as a receiver. After that, in the loop() section of the transmitter, we send an array of characters using the radio.write() function and on the receiver end we read the array using the radio.read() function and display it on the serial monitor every second. Code 1: Download Code 2 - Lighting Up LEDs In the second example, I am going to light up two LEDs on the receiver-end based on whichever button is pressed on the transmitter-end. To achieve this I have added 2 LEDs on the receiver end and 2 Push Button switches on the transmitter end. When Button B1 is pressed the transmitter sends "B1" using the radio.write() function and when Button B2 is pressed the transmitter sends "B2" using the radio.write() function to the receiver module. The "switch statement" in the receiver code then lights up the corresponding LED based on whichever button was pressed on the transmitter end. Code 2: Download Code 3 - Same Node Acting as TX and RX [Bidirectional Communication) In my 3rd example I will show you guys how a single node can act as both transmitter and receiver. Just remember you "cannot" send and receive data at the same time. Using the "stopListening()" and "startListening()" functions we will toggle between sending and receiving of data on the data pipes. What's different here from the previous code is that we are creating two pipes or addresses for the bi-directional communication. const byte addresses[][10] = {"ADDRESS01", "ADDRESS02"}; In the setup section we need to define both pipes in a way that the sending address of the 1st module is the receiving address of the 2nd module and vice versa the receiving address of the 1st module needs to be the sending address of the 2nd module. Now in the loop section of the 1st Arduino, we use the radio.stopListening() function to turn the node into a transmitter and send the data using the radio.write() function. On the receiver end we use the radio.startListening() function to read the incoming data. While there is incoming data (radio.available()) we read it using the radio.read() function. Then we add a bit of delay to the code. After that, we set the 1st Arduino to receiving mode using the radio.startListening() function and the 2nd Arduino to transmitting mode using the radio.stopListening() function. The data is then displayed on screen using the Serial Monitor. Code 3 : Download Code 4 - Multiple Nodes [Mesh - Multiceiver Network] The nRF24L01+ has a feature called Multiceiver. It is an abbreviation for Multiple Transmitter Single Receiver. In my 4th example, I am going to show you guys how to connect multiple transmitters to a single receiver. In a Multiceiver network each RF channel is logically divided into 6 parallel data channels or the data pipes. Each data pipe has its own unique data pipe address. Only one data pipe can receive a packet at a time. So basically, the primary receiver in the middle is collecting data from 6 different transmitting nodes simultaneously. The primary receiver can stop listening any time and start acting like a transmitter. This way you can create a mesh of network where each node can act as a repeater. There is a different library "RF24Mesh" you need to use to create this mesh network. Since I don't have that many modules handy at this moment, I am unable to show you guys the working bit of it. However, I will create a 2nd tutorial dedicated just to the mesh network, so stay tuned. Using Sleep Mode There is a way to conserve battery by sending the module to sleep mode. Please read through the "pingpair_sleepy" example for more details, I have provided the link in the description below. Factor Effecting The Transmission These modules work very well when the transmitter and receiver are close to each other. If the distance is too big you may lose the communication. The signals generated by these modules are very sensitive to power supply noises. Depending upon the amount of noise, the communication rate may vary. Setting the maximum output power can also improve the communication range. If there’s an obstacle in the line of sight you may see multiple dropouts. Reducing the data rate can significantly improve the performance. A speed of 250kbps is more than enough for most of our projects. Using an external antenna can also significantly improve the transmission rate. Another potential source of noise for RF circuits is WiFi. Especially when someone's network is set on the same channel. Since WiFi mostly uses the lower frequency channels, it is recommended to use the highest 25 channels for your nRF24L01+ modules. Thanks Thanks again for checking my post. I hope it helps you. If you want to support me subscribe to my YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/tarantula3 Blog Posts: Visit Website Video references: Visit Website DataSheet: Download Schema Schema - Sending Text: Download Schema - Lighting Up LEDs: Download Code Code 1 - Sending Text: Download Code 2 - Lighting Up LEDs: Download Code 3 - Bidirectional Communication: Download Libraries Used TMRh20/RF24 : Visit Website TMRh20/RF24 : Download RF24Mesh : Visit Website pingpair_sleepy : Visit Website Support My Work BTC: 1M1PdxVxSTPLoMK91XnvEPksVuAa4J4dDp LTC: MQFkVkWimYngMwp5SMuSbMP4ADStjysstm DOGE: DDe7Fws24zf7acZevoT8uERnmisiHwR5st ETH: 0x939aa4e13ecb4b46663c8017986abc0d204cde60 BAT: 0x939aa4e13ecb4b46663c8017986abc0d204cde60 LBC: bZ8ANEJFsd2MNFfpoxBhtFNPboh7PmD7M2 Thanks, ca again in my next tutorial.
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  11. I am confused with the two SIDACs (Silicon Diode for Alternating Current) in series. They are rated 220-250 volts switching each. 240 mains voltages would be in the order of 340*1,4 or 480 volts peak. About the same as the two SIDACs; not much to switch with? "These tasks of the starter are taken over by two 135 V sidac (or a single 270 V one). The starting voltage is thus 270 V, Which is below the peak value of the mains (about 340 V), but higher than the working voltage of a 20-40 W neon tube." see: https://circuit-diagramz.com/sidac-neon-tube-starter/ I will look at the circuit some more.
  12. Since these starters are very expensive, I thought of soldering a few myself. I saw a SIDAC circuit and bought a few of them, but it failed to work! I must be doing something wrong! My tube has no capacitor. Maybe it's that why it won't work? Here's a page that shows more of how they work: https://www.bristolwatch.com/ele/sidac.htm I'm in N-Australia and we got 240VAC, so I built this circuit:
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  16. It works by strategically sampling the AC voltage at various points along a waveform shape. From there, it digitizes all points or values and utilizes a microprocessor in order to execute a numerical analysis (which arrives at harmonic frequency magnitudes).
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  18. As the number of 100G QSFP28 devices connected to data centers increases and the need for high-speed data processing evolves, data centers need to gain the power to have faster and more efficient transmission rates. In recent years, 25G SFP28 and 100G QSFP28 technologies have gained increasing attention with their ability to provide efficient paths at high rates. So how do you choose a suitable solution to connect 100GBASE Ethernet and 25GBASE Ethernet? This article will introduce four QSFP28 to SFP28 connectivity solutions and tells how they differ in terms of how they work, their applications, and parameters. What is QSFP28 Transceiver Technology? The 100G QSFP28 form factor first appeared in 2013. After several years of development, the 100G QSFP28 optical module has spawned several categories, each with different optical module standards for different transmission applications. the QSFP28 form factor offers four different signal channels with increased transmission rates up to 100Gbps. the QSFP28 optical module is smaller than the CFP and CFP2. If you want to deploy a high-density, high-speed network, QSFP28 optical modules would be a good choice. 100G 40KM QSFP28 ER4 Four QSFP28 to SFP28 Interconnect Solutions 1. QSFP28 to SFP28 with MTP breakout connection When connecting one 100G QSFP28 transceiver directly to four 25G SFP28 transceivers , an 8-fiber MTP to 4×LC harness cable will do the job. This solution is suitable for situations where the connected optics are arranged over short distances, such as in the same rack/cabinet. MTP breakout cables provide the transition from multi-fiber cables to single-fiber or duplex connectors. These cables are suitable for a wide range of applications for all network and device requirements, such as 100GB SFP modules. It provides a reliable, cost-effective, and efficient cabling system for migrating from legacy 25G to higher speed 100G Ethernet. 2. QSFP28 to SFP28 connection using 100G DAC breakout cable 100G QSFP28 DAC breakout cable, widely used to link devices within 5 meters of the rack. 100G QSFP28 to 4x 25G SFP28 breakout direct connect copper cable' connected to 100G port on one end and 4x 25G SFP28 port on the other end, it is an excellent alternative to 100G optical modules for a short distance (1-5 meters) 100G Ethernet connections. solution. If your 100GbE network is deployed in a 5m rack, the 100G QSFP28 to SFP28 DAC Passive High-Speed Cable is perfect for you. In terms of power consumption, DAC cables consume less power than AOC cables. Since passive DAC cables do not require a power supply, the power consumption is almost zero. Compared to a 2W active optical cable, the high-speed cable has an advantage in terms of power consumption. 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 2KM 3. QSFP28 to SFP28 connection using AOC breakout cable 100G QSFP28 active optical cable includes 100G QSFP28 to 4x 25G SFP28 AOC, 100G QSFP28 to 4x 25G SFP28 split active optical cable with one end connected to 100G port, and one end connected to 4x 25G SFP28 port, this cable length is 1-70M, QSFP28 to 4x 25G SFP28 The maximum transmission distance of AOC with OM3 cable is 70M; the maximum transmission distance with OM4 cable is 100M. It is mainly used for interconnecting servers, storage devices, switches, and other devices. By the way, the cost of using AOC will be higher than that of DAC. In addition to price, AOC cables are lighter and thinner than DAC cables, with a smaller minimum bend radius, which facilitates the management of cabling systems. 4. QSFP28-SFP28 Adapter Module The QSFP28 Adapter (QSA) module, provides 25 Gigabit Ethernet for 100G QSFP28 dedicated platforms. It provides an option to use a lower speed SFP28 module by providing a smooth and economical migration to 100 Gigabit Ethernet on an empty QSFP28 port or when the other end of the network is running at a slower speed. the QSA module converts a QSFP28 port to an SFP28 port. With this adapter, customers can use any SFP28 module or cable to the QSA module to convert a QSFP28 port into an SFP28. With this adapter, customers can use any SFP28 module or cable to connect to a lower-speed port on the other end of the network. The adapter supports all SFP28 optics and cables. 25GB SFP28 DWDM 20KM Transceiver Conclusion This post introduced four QSFP28 to SFP28 interconnect solutions. MTP breakout cable solution is used to directly connect one 100G QSFP28 transceiver with four 25G SFP28 transceivers, 100G QSFP28 to 4x25G SFP28 DAC breakout cable solution supports distance up to 5 meters within racks, and 100G QSFP28 to 4x25G SFP28 AOC breakout cable solution is used for 1 to 70 meters the distance between the switches to transmit 100G Ethernet data, the last 100G QSFP28 to SFP28 converter module is to use an adapter with SFP28 module or cable to connect to a lower-speed port on the other end of the network. When choosing an appropriate interconnect solution, we need to consider a combination of cost, the distance between device ends, device port density, and acceptable power consumption. For example, if cost is your first consideration and the distance between device ends is within 5 meters, then a 100G QSFP28 to 4x25G SFP28 DAC breakout solution may be your first choice. Hilink offers a variety of 100G transceivers that enable economically, high-density, and low-power 100G Ethernet connectivity for data center, distribution layer, and service provider applications solutions.
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  21. The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a technology that uses a network to connect all things through sensor detection technology and digital signal processing and transmission technology. tightly connected network. The Internet of Things is an information carrier based on the Internet, traditional telecommunication networks, etc. It enables all common physical objects that can be independently addressed to form an interconnected network. On July 13, 2021, the Internet Society of China released the "China Internet Development Report (2021)", the IoT market size will reach 1.7 trillion yuan, and the artificial intelligence market size will reach 303.1 billion yuan. When it comes to the Internet of Things, we have to mention the "language" that is required for the interaction of the Internet of Everything, also called the protocol. In communication, the communication protocol is extremely important, and it is the rules and conventions that both parties must follow to complete the communication. . With the continuous development of the Internet of Things industry, there are more and more types of protocols between them. Today, let's talk about the long-distance cellular communication protocols that are very common in the Internet of Things. Long-distance cellular communication protocols are mainly divided into 2/3/4 generation mobile communication protocols, also known as 2G/3G/4G. This should be the most familiar protocol, so I won't explain it too much here. In addition, there is the Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) protocol. Up to now, NB-IoT has become an important branch of the Internet of Everything. NB-IoT started with cellular network technology, but consumes very low bandwidth (about 180kHz), which can It is directly deployed in the GSM network, UMTS network or LTE network. Therefore, the NB-IoT network deployment cost is extremely low and the implementability is extremely strong. NB-IoT is mainly used in low-power and wide-coverage networks such as wireless meter reading. It has the characteristics of wide coverage, large number of connections, low cost, and low power consumption. Scenario applications brought by the NB-IoT network include applications with a small amount of data such as smart parking, smart fire protection, smart water, smart street lights, shared bicycles and smart home appliances. 5G technology, also known as the fifth-generation mobile communication technology, is the latest cellular mobile communication technology. Its peak theoretical transmission speed can reach 20Gbps, 2.5GB per second, which is more than 10 times faster than the transmission speed of 4G network. On November 16, 2021, at the press conference on the "14th Five-Year Plan" information and communication industry development plan held by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Xie Cun, director of the Information and Communication Development Department, said: At present, my country has built more than 1.15 million 5G base stations, accounting for the global More than 70%, it is the world's largest and most technologically advanced 5G independent networking network, so the 5G network has great development prospects. picture 5G networks are currently mainly used in AR/VR, Internet of Vehicles, smart manufacturing, smart energy, wireless medical care, wireless home entertainment, connected drones, ultra-high-definition/panoramic live broadcasts, personal AI assistance, and smart cities. Places with lower traffic delays, but higher cost requirements.
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  23. Proper thermal dissipation is an essential rule for nowadays electronics. The best operating temperature for the electronic components is 25 degrees (standard room temperature). Thermal dissipation in some commercial devices is not done properly which affects the lifetime and performance of the devices. So, embedding a compact automatic cooling Fan controller board would be useful. Also, it can be used to protect your own designed circuits and their power components, such as regulators, Mosfets, power transistors … etc. Previously, I had introduced a circuit to control the cooling fans, however, my intention was not to use any microcontroller and keep it as simple as possible. So, the device was a simple ON/OFF switch for the FAN, depending on the defined temperature threshold. This time, I decided to design a complete and more professional circuit to control the majority of the standard FANs (25KHz PWM) using an LM35 temperature sensor and an ATTiny13 microcontroller. I used SMD components and the PCB board is compact. It can control one or several standard 3-wires or 4-wires FANs, connected in parallel, such as CPU Fans. Moreover, the target device/component can be protected against over-temperature using a Relay. The user is also notified by visual/acoustic warnings (a flashing LED and a Buzzer). To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and the SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin). To get high-quality fabricated PCB boards, you can send the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchase original components using the componentsearchengine.com. I initially tested the circuit on a breadboard. I used the Siglent SDM3045X multimeter to accurately examine the voltages and the Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope to examine the shape, duty cycle, and frequency of the PWM pulse. References Ref: https://www.eeweb.com/pwm-cooling-fan-controller-and-over-temperature-protection-using-lm35-and-attiny13/ [1]: ATTiny13 datasheet: https://componentsearchengine.com/Datasheets/1/ATtiny13-20SSU.pdf [2]: 78L05 datasheet: https://www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/l78l.pdf [3]: 2N7002 datasheet: https://datasheet.datasheetarchive.com/originals/distributors/Datasheets-26/DSA-502170.pdf [4]: 2N7002 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/2N7002/Nexperia [5]: L78L05 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/L78L05ABD13TR/STMicroelectronics [6]: ATTiny13 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/ATTINY13-20SSU/Microchip [7]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [8]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [9]: MicroCore board manager: https://github.com/MCUdude/MicroCore#analog-pins [10]: Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/product/sds1104x-e-100-mhz/
  24. Proper thermal dissipation is an essential rule for nowadays electronics. The best operating temperature for the electronic components is 25 degrees (standard room temperature). Thermal dissipation in some commercial devices is not done properly which affects the lifetime and performance of the devices. So, embedding a compact automatic cooling Fan controller board would be useful. Also, it can be used to protect your own designed circuits and their power components, such as regulators, Mosfets, power transistors … etc. Previously, I had introduced a circuit to control the cooling fans, however, my intention was not to use any microcontroller and keep it as simple as possible. So, the device was a simple ON/OFF switch for the FAN, depending on the defined temperature threshold. This time, I decided to design a complete and more professional circuit to control the majority of the standard FANs (25KHz PWM) using an LM35 temperature sensor and an ATTiny13 microcontroller. I used SMD components and the PCB board is compact. It can control one or several standard 3-wires or 4-wires FANs, connected in parallel, such as CPU Fans. Moreover, the target device/component can be protected against over-temperature using a Relay. The user is also notified by visual/acoustic warnings (a flashing LED and a Buzzer). To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and the SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin). To get high-quality fabricated PCB boards, you can send the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchase original components using the componentsearchengine.com. I initially tested the circuit on a breadboard. I used the Siglent SDM3045X multimeter to accurately examine the voltages and the Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope to examine the shape, duty cycle, and frequency of the PWM pulse. References Ref: https://www.eeweb.com/pwm-cooling-fan-controller-and-over-temperature-protection-using-lm35-and-attiny13/ [1]: ATTiny13 datasheet: https://componentsearchengine.com/Datasheets/1/ATtiny13-20SSU.pdf [2]: 78L05 datasheet: https://www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/l78l.pdf [3]: 2N7002 datasheet: https://datasheet.datasheetarchive.com/originals/distributors/Datasheets-26/DSA-502170.pdf [4]: 2N7002 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/2N7002/Nexperia [5]: L78L05 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/L78L05ABD13TR/STMicroelectronics [6]: ATTiny13 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/ATTINY13-20SSU/Microchip [7]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [8]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [9]: MicroCore board manager: https://github.com/MCUdude/MicroCore#analog-pins [10]: Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/product/sds1104x-e-100-mhz/
  25. You can frequently check the capacitor with an ohmmeter range multi-meter without unplugging it. A good capacitor will have a low initial reading that rises as the capacitor charges. If this doesn't work, I'll unplug one of the wires and try again. It may be shorted if the reading remains low. It will typically only indicate a high reading if there is no capacitance. If you like to find more details check out:https://bde-ltd.com/blog/
  26. I found one company, owlab, on the Internet. They develop mobile and web applications https://owlab.group/ Write to the manager, tell him what you want. Also prepare for a long survey of how the function should work. What data the program will take, etc. Judging by the reviews, this is the best company that provides similar services at an adequate cost. Look at their portfolio and make sure that they have already developed similar applications.
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