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  1. The key part of any electronic device is the power supply. Any instability or malfunction of the power supply part causes the device to stop working or demonstrate weird behavior. In this article/video, I introduced an AC-to-DC flyback Switching power supply that converts 85V-260VAC to 5VDC-2.5A, which can be used in various applications. The 5V selection for the output makes it friendly for linear regulators that convert 5VDC to lower voltages. The maximum power delivery of this power supply is around 12W, which means it can handle 2.5A at 5V output. The controller chip is DK1203, which does not need any external supply, a startup resistor, or an auxiliary winding on the transformer. The ferrite core of the transformer is EE20. A potentiometer allows you to adjust the output voltage and set it exactly at 5.0V. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 23 and shared the PCB project with my friends for feedback and updates using Altium-365. The fast component search engine, Octopart, proved invaluable in quickly obtaining component information and generating the Bill of Materials (BOM). To ensure high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerber files to PCBWay. I tested the board for voltage drop, current delivery, and output noise. I used Siglent SDL1020X-E DC Load and Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope to perform all tests. I am confident that building this circuit enhances your knowledge regarding switching power supply design, except for using it for real applications. Schematic + PCB + Transformer: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/85V_260VAC_to_5VDC_2_5A_Flyback_Switching_Power_Supply_b7f49beb.html References [1]: DK1203: https://grupoautcomp.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Specification-IC-DK1203.pdf [2]: 500mA Fuse: https://octopart.com/39211000440-littelfuse-39590771?r=sp [3]: 07D471 Varistor: https://octopart.com/mov-07d471ktr-bourns-19184728?r=sp [4]: 100nF X2: https://octopart.com/r463i310050m1k-kemet-50550056?r=sp [5]: UU9.8 Choke: https://octopart.com/7355-h-rc-bourns-12614152?r=sp [6]: MB6M Bridge: https://octopart.com/mb6m-e3%2F45-vishay-42761003?r=sp [7]: 22uF-400V: https://octopart.com/eca2ghg220-panasonic-3578224?r=sp [8]: RS1M Diode: https://octopart.com/rs1m-13-f-diodes+inc.-333072?r=sp [9]: PC817 Optocoupler: https://octopart.com/pc817xnnsz1b-sharp-80823687?r=sp [10]: TL431 Shunt: https://octopart.com/tl431acdbvr-texas+instruments-521839?r=sp [11]: SS54 Schottky Diode: https://octopart.com/ss54-multicomp-18903925?r=sp [12]: 470R-1206: https://octopart.com/cr1206-jw-471elf-bourns-3872844?r=sp
  2. Whenever you hear the transformerless supply term, you initially imagine the capacitor-based solution, which means a high voltage capacitor in series with the mains line, then a bridge rectifier, a Zener diode, a filtering capacitor, and so on. Such a circuit is not just able to deliver sufficient current for many applications, also, it is not a reliable solution for the industry, although you might see such circuits in some cheap products that are designed to have a low cost. A month ago, I was repairing a washing machine mainboard. In the examination process, I realized that it is equipped with an LNK304 chip that is used in transformerless supplies. So I decided to design a circuit based on this chip to be used in your applications. The circuit contains 220VAC mains input protection, output filtering, and a regulator. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and the SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin). To get high-quality fabricated PCB boards, I sent the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchased original components using the componentsearchengine.com. To test the current handling and stability of the output voltage, I used the Siglent SDL1020X-E DC Load and examined the power supply output noise using the Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope. References main: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/220Vac_to_5Vdc_Transformerless_Power_Supply_Using_LNK304_5b2e2d7d.html DB107G schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/DB107-G/Comchip%20Technology LNK304G schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/LNK304GN-TL/Power Integrations 78M05 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/MC78M05CDTG/onsemi Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions Siglent SDL1020X-E DC load: https://siglentna.com/dc-electronic-load/sdl1000x/ Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope: https://www.siglenteu.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds2000xp/
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