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  1. Flyback is the most common circuit topology to build galvanically isolated AC to DC or DC to DC converters. Flyback circuit is cheap and relatively easy to manufacture, therefore nowadays the majority of home or industrial appliances are powered using AC to DC Flyback converters. In general, a Flyback converter is suitable for low-power applications, mostly below 100W. In this article/video, I designed a cheap AC-to-DC flyback converter using a DK124 IC that can deliver up to 18W continuously. I calculated the transformer to handle 12V at the output which can be easily modified to reach other output voltages as well. The DK124 chip does not need any auxiliary winding or even an external startup resistor. The 220V Mains input has been protected using a MOV, an NTC, and a Fuse. The PCB board is single-layer and all components are through-hole. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22. The fast component search engine (octopart) allowed me to quickly consider components’ information and also generate the BOM. To get high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerber files to PCBWay. To test the power supply, I used Siglent an SDL1020X-E DC Load, an SDM3045X Multimeter, and an SDS1104X-E/SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope. Specifications Input Voltage Range: 85 to 265V-AC Output Power: 18W Continuous Output Voltage: 12V-DC Switching Frequency: 65KHz Reference: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/220V_AC_to_12V_DC_18W_Switching_Power_Supply_81665a6c.html [1]: DK124: https://grupoautcomp.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Specification-IC-DK124.pdf [2]: 10D561: https://octopart.com/mov-10d561k-bourns-19184788?r=sp [3]: PC817: https://octopart.com/pc817x1j000f-sharp-39642331?r=sp [4]: TL431: https://octopart.com/tl431aclpr-texas+instruments-521800?r=sp
  2. Switching power supplies are known for high efficiency. An adjustable voltage/current supply is an interesting tool, which can be used in many applications such as a Lithium-ion/Lead-acid/NiCD-NiMH battery charger or a standalone power supply. In this article, we will learn to build a variable step-down buck converter using the popular LM2576-Adj chip. Features Cheap and easy to build and use Constant current and constant voltage adjustment [CC, CV] capability 1.2V to 25V and 25mA to 3A controlling range Easy to adjust the parameters (optimum use of variable resistors to control the voltage and current) The design follows the EMC rules It is easy to mount a heatsink on the LM2576 It uses a real shunt resistor (not a PCB track) to sense the current
  3. Abstract: A high-quality switching power supply efficiency is as high as 95%, and the switching power supply loss is mostly from switching devices (MOSFETs and diodes), so the correct measurement of switching device losses is critical for efficiency analysis. So how do we accurately measure switching losses? First, switching loss Since the switch is a non-ideal device, its working process can be divided into four states, as shown in Figure 1. "On state" means that the switch tube is in the on state; "off state" means that the switch tube is in the off state; "on process" means that the switch tube is switched from off to on state; "off process" means that the switch tube is from conduction The conversion is turned off. In general, the main energy loss is reflected in the "on process" and "off process", a small part of the energy is reflected in the "on state", and the "off state" loss is very small, almost zero, negligible. Figure 1 Switching tube four state division The actual measurement waveform is generally as shown below: Figure 2 Switch tube actual power loss test Second, the conduction process loss The energy consumed by the transistor switching circuit during the conversion process is usually very large, because the parasitic signal of the circuit prevents the device from switching immediately, and the voltage and current in this state are in an alternating state, so it is difficult to directly calculate the power consumption. The voltage and current are considered to be linear, so the loss can be roughly calculated by finding the area of the triangle, but this is not accurate enough. For digital oscilloscopes, advanced math functions are provided, so the loss of the conduction process can be calculated using the following formula. Eon represents the loss energy of the conduction process Pon represents the average power loss (active power) during the conduction process Vds and Id represent instantaneous voltage and current, respectively Ts indicates the switching period T0, t1 indicate the start time and end time of the conduction process Shutdown process loss The closing process loss is the same as the conduction process loss calculation method, except that the start and end times of the integration are different. Eoff represents the loss energy of the shutdown process Poff represents the average power loss (active power) of the shutdown process Vds and Id represent instantaneous voltage and current, respectively Ts indicates the switching period T2, t3 indicate the start time and end time of the shutdown process Third, conduction loss In the on state, the switch tube usually flows a large current, but the on-resistance of the switch tube is very small, usually in milliohms, so the energy loss in the on state is relatively small, but it cannot ignore. Using an oscilloscope to measure conduction loss is not recommended for voltage-to-current integration because the oscilloscope cannot accurately measure small voltages during turn-on. For example, when the switch is normally turned off, the voltage is 500V, and when it is turned on, it is 100mV. Suppose the accuracy of the oscilloscope is ±1‰ (this is a very bullish indicator), and the minimum measurement accuracy is ±500mV. It is impossible to accurately measure 100mV. It is even possible that the measured voltage is negative (100mV-500mV). Since the small voltage at the time of conduction cannot be accurately measured, the energy loss error calculated by the method of integrating the voltage by the current is large. On the contrary, the current is large when turned on, so it can be measured accurately, so the current and on-resistance can be used to calculate the loss, as shown in the following formula: Econd represents the loss energy of the conduction state Pcond indicates the average power loss (active power) in the on state Id represents the instantaneous current Rds(on) indicates the on-resistance of the switch, which is given in the switch, as shown in Figure 3. Ts indicates the switching period T1, t2 indicate the start time and end time of the on state Figure 3 shows the relationship between on-resistance and current Fourth, switching loss Switching loss refers to the total energy loss, which consists of conduction process loss, shutdown process loss, and conduction loss, calculated using the following formula: Five, switching loss analysis plug-in High-end oscilloscopes usually also integrate switch loss analysis plug-ins. Because the on-state voltage measurement is not accurate, the calculation formula for the on-state can be modified. There are three main types: ● UI, U and I are measured values ● I2R, I is the measured value, R is the on-resistance, and the user inputs Rds(on) ● UceI, I is the measured value, and Uce is the voltage value input by the user to compensate for the problem of voltage and voltage uncertainty. It is generally recommended to use the I2R formula. The figure below shows the switching loss test diagram of the ZDS4000 Plus. Figure 4 Switching loss test results Summary Switching loss testing is critical for device evaluation. With a professional power analysis plug-in, the power loss of the device can be evaluated quickly and efficiently, which is simpler and more convenient than manual analysis. For MOSFETs, the I2R conduction loss calculation formula is the best choice.
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