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sam.moshiri

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Everything posted by sam.moshiri

  1. The Full-Bridge (H-Bridge) is the most popular driver circuit to control brushed DC motors. The main advantage of a full bridge driver is the ability to change the rotation direction of the motor, without manually reversing the supply wires. I’ve already published the Half-bridge and H-bridge driver circuits before; however, I was receiving many requests and comments for a standalone H-Bridge driver to control the DC motors, without using any external board or a controller. Therefore, I introduced a cheap, compact, and standalone H-Bridge DC motor driver that can be embedded in a variety of mechatronic devices. A cheap ATTiny13 microcontroller controls everything and I used the Arduino IDE to write the microcontroller code. All components, except for the connectors, are SMD. The motor can be controlled in three modes: Forward, Stop, and Reverse. The user can adjust the rotation speed of the motor separately in the forward or reverse direction, using two panel-mounting potentiometers. The low ON-Resistance of the Mosfets allows you to use this circuit in high currents. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22. The fast component search engine (octopart) allowed me to quickly collect the components’ data and generate the BOM as well. To get high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerber files to PCBWay. To test the driver board, I disassembled an electric toy car and used its powerful 775 DC motor (plus the gearbox). It’s a cool experience, just build one and have fun! Specifications Input Voltage (Motor): 8-40VDC Supply Voltage (Controller): 12VDC PWM Frequency: 25KHz Motor Control: Forward-Stop-Reverse Motor Speed: [0 to 100%] Forward, [0 to 100%] Reverse References Article: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/A_Standalone_Full_Bridge_DC_Motor_Driver_2c7c2086.html [1]: ATTiny13 MCU: https://octopart.com/attiny13a-ssur-microchip-77761976?r=sp [2]: 78L05 SOT89: https://octopart.com/ka78l05aimtf-onsemi-84329328?r=sp [3]: IRF3205 D2PACK: https://octopart.com/irf3205strlpbf-infineon-65873335?r=sp [4]: IR2104: https://octopart.com/ir2104spbf-infineon-65872813?r=sp [5]: MicroCore Arduino Package: https://github.com/MCUdude/MicroCore [6]: Complied HEX file: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_FEbxj3XtWoZCNCxfpgcvCwcf9j8cqj-/view?usp=sharing
  2. Raspberry Pi Pico is a cute piece of hardware. It is equipped with a powerful dual-core RP2040 microcontroller that offers 2M (up to 16M) Flash and 264K SRAM memories. Such specifications make it suitable for a variety of hobby and industrial applications. In this article/video, I used a Pico board, a digital SHTC3 sensor, and a 2.4” colorful TFT display to build a graphical temperature and humidity measurement/control unit that can be used to monitor the home, workplace, indoor garden, devices … etc. The board was also equipped with two Relays that allow the user to set the cooling/heating limits and adjust the parameters in the GUI. The trickiest part of this project was the Pico code. I used the Pico C/C++ SDK library and invested a significant amount of time in designing the GUI and debugging the code. I should confess it was not an easy task. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium designer 22 and installed the missing component libraries using Altium’s manufacturer part search. By using the Octopart website, I was able to quickly gather the necessary component information and generate the BOM. Finally, to get high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerber files to PCBWay. It's a cool piece of hardware for anyone, so let’s get started References Article: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/Temperature_Humidity_Control_Unit_Using_a_Raspberry_Pi_Pico_66fdee4a.html [1]: 78M05: https://octopart.com/l78m05acdt-stmicroelectronics-2280839?r=sp [2]: TLV1117-33C: https://octopart.com/tlv1117-33cdcyr-texas+instruments-669251?r=sp [3]: Raspberry Pi Pico: https://octopart.com/sc0915-raspberry+pi-116090189?r=sp [4]: LM1-5D: https://octopart.com/lm1-5d-rayex-53719411?r=sp [5]: 2N7002: https://octopart.com/2n7002-t1-e3-vishay-55433894?r=sp
  3. Dealing with the 220V-AC mains voltage and measuring the AC loads' true power, voltage, and current parameters are always considered a big challenge for electronic designers, both in circuit design and calculations. The situation gets more complex when we deal with the inductive loads because inductive loads alter the sine-wave shape of the AC signal (resistive loads don’t). In this article/video, I introduced a circuit that can measure the AC voltage, RMS current, active power, apparent power, power factor, and energy consumption (KWh) of the loads. I used an Arduino-Nano board as a processor to make this more educational-friendly and attractive even for beginners. The device independently measures the aforementioned parameters and displays the results on a 4*20 LCD. The measurement error rate is around 0.5% or lower. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium designer 22 and installed the missing component libraries using Altium’s manufacturer part search. The Octopart website allowed me to quickly gather information about the components and make a BOM for the project. To get high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerber files to PCBWay and used the Siglent SDM3045X benchtop multimeter to calibrate the board. It's a cool device to be used in everyday electronics, so let’s get started 🙂 References Ref: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/High_Precision_Digital_AC_Energy_Meter_Circuit_Voltage_Current_Power_KWh_3a6bf090.html [1]: Arduino-Nano: https://octopart.com/a000005-arduino-20172777?r=sp [2]: HLW8032 English datasheet: https://github.com/MyVanitar/HLW8032/blob/main/DS_HLW8032_EN_Rev1.5.pdf [3]: TS2937CW50 (LM2937): https://octopart.com/ts2937cw50+rpg-taiwan+semiconductor-58281876?r=sp [4]: HLW8032 Arduino Library: https://github.com/MyVanitar/HLW8032
  4. A DC-to-DC converter is one of the most commonly used circuit topologies in electronics, especially in power supply applications. There are three major types of DC-to-DC converters (non-isolated): Buck, Boost, and Buck-Boost. Sometimes a buck converter is also called a step-down converter and a boost converter is also called a step-up converter. In this article/video, I introduce an adjustable buck converter circuit that uses an advanced converter chip, made by Texas Instruments, which is TPS5430. It’s a high-frequency and 95% efficient chip. In the PCB layout design of such converters, several PCB design rules should be followed, otherwise, the circuit might generate a significant amount of radiated emission and suffer output instability. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and used the manufacturer part search feature to directly import the components into the PCB project. Then, generated the BOM list using the free OctoPart services. To get high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerbers to PCBWay and tested the circuit for output stability and noise, using a DC load, A multimeter, and an oscilloscope. Soon later, I will also perform the step-response test and demonstrate the results. Stay connected! Specifications Input Voltage: 5.5V to 36V Output Voltage: 1.22Vmin (variable) Output Current (continuous): 3A Output Current (peak): 4A Maximum output voltage drop: 10mV (3A load) Output Noise: 12mVp-p (no load), 43mVp-p (3A load), 20MHz-BW References Ref: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/36V_3A_Adjustable_Efficient_DC_to_DC_Step_Down_Converter_aca08813.html [1]: TPS5430: https://octopart.com/tps5430mddarep-texas+instruments-12192395?r=sp [2]: B360B-13-F (or SS34, SMB package): https://octopart.com/b360b-13-f-diodes+inc.-325834?r=sp
  5. Proper thermal dissipation is an essential rule for nowadays electronics. The best operating temperature for the electronic components is 25 degrees (standard room temperature). Thermal dissipation in some commercial devices is not done properly which affects the lifetime and performance of the devices. So, embedding a compact automatic cooling Fan controller board would be useful. Also, it can be used to protect your own designed circuits and their power components, such as regulators, Mosfets, power transistors … etc. Previously, I had introduced a circuit to control the cooling fans, however, my intention was not to use any microcontroller and keep it as simple as possible. So, the device was a simple ON/OFF switch for the FAN, depending on the defined temperature threshold. This time, I decided to design a complete and more professional circuit to control the majority of the standard FANs (25KHz PWM) using an LM35 temperature sensor and an ATTiny13 microcontroller. I used SMD components and the PCB board is compact. It can control one or several standard 3-wires or 4-wires FANs, connected in parallel, such as CPU Fans. Moreover, the target device/component can be protected against over-temperature using a Relay. The user is also notified by visual/acoustic warnings (a flashing LED and a Buzzer). To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and the SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin). To get high-quality fabricated PCB boards, you can send the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchase original components using the componentsearchengine.com. I initially tested the circuit on a breadboard. I used the Siglent SDM3045X multimeter to accurately examine the voltages and the Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope to examine the shape, duty cycle, and frequency of the PWM pulse. References Ref: https://www.eeweb.com/pwm-cooling-fan-controller-and-over-temperature-protection-using-lm35-and-attiny13/ [1]: ATTiny13 datasheet: https://componentsearchengine.com/Datasheets/1/ATtiny13-20SSU.pdf [2]: 78L05 datasheet: https://www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/l78l.pdf [3]: 2N7002 datasheet: https://datasheet.datasheetarchive.com/originals/distributors/Datasheets-26/DSA-502170.pdf [4]: 2N7002 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/2N7002/Nexperia [5]: L78L05 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/L78L05ABD13TR/STMicroelectronics [6]: ATTiny13 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/ATTINY13-20SSU/Microchip [7]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [8]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [9]: MicroCore board manager: https://github.com/MCUdude/MicroCore#analog-pins [10]: Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/product/sds1104x-e-100-mhz/
  6. Proper thermal dissipation is an essential rule for nowadays electronics. The best operating temperature for the electronic components is 25 degrees (standard room temperature). Thermal dissipation in some commercial devices is not done properly which affects the lifetime and performance of the devices. So, embedding a compact automatic cooling Fan controller board would be useful. Also, it can be used to protect your own designed circuits and their power components, such as regulators, Mosfets, power transistors … etc. Previously, I had introduced a circuit to control the cooling fans, however, my intention was not to use any microcontroller and keep it as simple as possible. So, the device was a simple ON/OFF switch for the FAN, depending on the defined temperature threshold. This time, I decided to design a complete and more professional circuit to control the majority of the standard FANs (25KHz PWM) using an LM35 temperature sensor and an ATTiny13 microcontroller. I used SMD components and the PCB board is compact. It can control one or several standard 3-wires or 4-wires FANs, connected in parallel, such as CPU Fans. Moreover, the target device/component can be protected against over-temperature using a Relay. The user is also notified by visual/acoustic warnings (a flashing LED and a Buzzer). To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and the SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin). To get high-quality fabricated PCB boards, you can send the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchase original components using the componentsearchengine.com. I initially tested the circuit on a breadboard. I used the Siglent SDM3045X multimeter to accurately examine the voltages and the Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope to examine the shape, duty cycle, and frequency of the PWM pulse. References Ref: https://www.eeweb.com/pwm-cooling-fan-controller-and-over-temperature-protection-using-lm35-and-attiny13/ [1]: ATTiny13 datasheet: https://componentsearchengine.com/Datasheets/1/ATtiny13-20SSU.pdf [2]: 78L05 datasheet: https://www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/l78l.pdf [3]: 2N7002 datasheet: https://datasheet.datasheetarchive.com/originals/distributors/Datasheets-26/DSA-502170.pdf [4]: 2N7002 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/2N7002/Nexperia [5]: L78L05 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/L78L05ABD13TR/STMicroelectronics [6]: ATTiny13 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/ATTINY13-20SSU/Microchip [7]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [8]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [9]: MicroCore board manager: https://github.com/MCUdude/MicroCore#analog-pins [10]: Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/product/sds1104x-e-100-mhz/
  7. Whenever you hear the transformerless supply term, you initially imagine the capacitor-based solution, which means a high voltage capacitor in series with the mains line, then a bridge rectifier, a Zener diode, a filtering capacitor, and so on. Such a circuit is not just able to deliver sufficient current for many applications, also, it is not a reliable solution for the industry, although you might see such circuits in some cheap products that are designed to have a low cost. A month ago, I was repairing a washing machine mainboard. In the examination process, I realized that it is equipped with an LNK304 chip that is used in transformerless supplies. So I decided to design a circuit based on this chip to be used in your applications. The circuit contains 220VAC mains input protection, output filtering, and a regulator. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and the SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin). To get high-quality fabricated PCB boards, I sent the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchased original components using the componentsearchengine.com. To test the current handling and stability of the output voltage, I used the Siglent SDL1020X-E DC Load and examined the power supply output noise using the Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope. References main: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/220Vac_to_5Vdc_Transformerless_Power_Supply_Using_LNK304_5b2e2d7d.html DB107G schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/DB107-G/Comchip%20Technology LNK304G schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/LNK304GN-TL/Power Integrations 78M05 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/MC78M05CDTG/onsemi Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions Siglent SDL1020X-E DC load: https://siglentna.com/dc-electronic-load/sdl1000x/ Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope: https://www.siglenteu.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds2000xp/
  8. An ultrasonic range finder is a useful tool in a variety of real-life and robotic applications, such as in obstacle avoidance and distance measurement systems. The ultrasonic range finder measures the distance by emitting a 40KHz pulse of ultrasonic sound that travels through the air until it hits an object, then it measures the delay of the reflected signal and sends proper commands to other units. I used an SRF05 ultrasonic sensor and an ATTiny85 microcontroller. The distance data is displayed on a 128*64 OLED screen, both in centimeters and inches. Also, a horizontal bar graph provides a visual estimation of the distance. The MCU code was developed using the Arduino IDE. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin). To get high-quality PCB boards, I sent the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchased original components using componentsearchengine.com. To examine the current consumption of the circuit, I used the Siglent SDM3045X multimeter. Isn’t cool?! So let’s get started. Specifications Input Voltage: 6-24VDC Current Consumption: 24mA Detection Range: 2-400cm (see text) Distance Data: Centimeters, Inches, Bar Graph Display: 128*64-Yellow Blue OLED References Ref: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/An_Ultrasonic_Range_Finder_Using_an_SRF05_and_an_ATTiny85_cff7c5cf.html Tool: Altium Designer + Legal License (Free): https://www.altium.com/yt/myvanitar [1]: TS2937CW50 datasheet: https://www.taiwansemi.com/assets/uploads/datasheet/TS2937_E15.pdf [2]: ATTiny85 datasheet: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/Atmel-2586-AVR-8-bit-Microcontroller-ATtiny25-ATtiny45-ATtiny85_Datasheet.pdf [3]: TS2937 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/TS2937CW-5.0%20RP/Taiwan%20Semiconductor [4]: ATTiny85 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/ATTINY85-20SUR/Microchip [5]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [6]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [7]: ATTinyCore Arduino Board Manager: https://github.com/SpenceKonde/ATTinyCore [8]: Arduino New Ping library: https://bitbucket.org/teckel12/arduino-new-ping/wiki/Home [9]: Arduino Tiny4KOLED library: https://www.arduino.cc/reference/en/libraries/tiny4koled [10]: Siglent SDM3045X multimeter: https://siglentna.com/digital-multimeters/sdm3045x-digital-multimeter/
  9. Nowadays, Lithium batteries are used extensively in portable devices, such as cellphones, laptop computers, electronic gadgets, … etc. There is a standard industry-defined procedure (cycle) for charging the lithium-ion/lithium-polymer batteries, otherwise, the lifetime of the batteries is reduced significantly or even they might explode and catch fire. As a basic rule of thumb, a lithium battery should be charged at the rate of 0.5C to 1C. In this article/video, I have introduced a universal double lithium battery charger that the charging current (C rate) can be adjusted simply by changing a resistor value. You just need a 5V power source (such as a mobile charger) and a USB Type-C cable. To design the schematic and PC, I used Altium Designer 22 and the SamacSys component libraries (Altium Plugin). To get high-quality PCB boards, I sent the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchased original components using componentsearchengine.com. To examine the charging current/voltage, I used the Siglent SDM3045X multimeter. Isn’t cool?!, So let’s get started! References Ref: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/Double_Lithium_Ion_Lithium_Polymer_USB_Type_C_Charger_863d1ae1.html [1]: MCP73831 datasheet: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/20001984g.pdf [2]: MCP73831 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/MCP73831T-2DCI%2FOT/Microchip [3]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [4]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [5]: Siglent SDM3045X multimeter: https://siglentna.com/digital-multimeters/sdm3045x-digital-multimeter/ Altium Designer + License (Free): https://www.altium.com/yt/myvanitar
  10. The white noise generator circuit is a handy tool that can be used to examine the circuit or a communication line under some random noises to make sure about the stability of the device in real and harsh environments. The current consumption of the device is low, so you can power the circuit using a small 12V-23A battery. if you have access to a 3D printer, you can build a nice enclosure for the circuit. The schematic and PCB have been designed using Altium Designer 22. The output white noise has been tested using the Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope. References Altium Designer + License (Free): https://www.altium.com/yt/myvanitar
  11. The high temperature of the power components is a known phenomenon in electronics. To overcome this challenge, the designers mount heatsinks on the components to dissipate the heat, however, in many commercial and home appliance devices, the embedded heatsink is not adequate and the air must be circulated faster to reduce the heatsink and component temperature, otherwise, the lifetime of the component is reduced significantly. The proposed automatic FAN controller board is simple, compact, and can be embedded inside commercial devices. The LM35 temperature sensor could be fixed on the heatsink using some silicon glue. The user can easily set the temperature threshold using a potentiometer. The board can be supplied using a 5V or a 12V supply, therefore a variety of 5V, 12V, miniature, and PC FANs can be used. I used Altium Designer 21 and SamacSys component libraries (SamacSys Altium plugin) to draw the schematic and PCB. Except for the connectors, all components are SMD and easy to solder. References Source: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/Cooling_FAN_Controller_using_an_LM35_8d3d76cb.html [1]: LM358 datasheet: https://www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/lm358.pdf [2]: SI2302 datasheet: https://www.vishay.com/docs/63653/si2302dds.pdf [3]: LM358 schematic symbol, pcb footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/LM358D/STMicroelectronics [4]: Si2302 schematic symbol, pcb footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/SI2302DDS-T1-GE3/Vishay [5]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [6]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions
  12. DC to DC buck converters is a famous topology in the electronic and a widely used circuit in electronic devices. A buck converter steps down the input voltage while it increases the output current. In this article/video, I have discussed a DC to DC buck converter that can be used effectively as a switching power supply. The output voltage and current are adjustable: 1.25V to 30V and 10mA to 6A (continuous). The power supply supports the constant voltage (CV) and constant current (CC) features. Two LEDs demonstrate the CV and CC status. The circuit is compact and both sides of the PCB have been used to mount the components. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 21, also the SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin) to install the missing schematic symbols/PCB footprints. To get high-quality fabricated PCB boards, I sent the Gerbers to PCBWay. To test the circuit, I used the power analysis feature of the Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope (or SDS1104X-E), Siglent SDL1020X-E DC Load, and Siglent SDM3045X multimeter. Isn’t cool, so let’s get started! Specifications Input Voltage: 8V to 35VDC Output Voltage: 1.25V to 32VDC Output Current (continuous): 10mA to 6A Output Current (short period): 7A to 8A Output Noise (no load): 6mVrms (9mVp-p) Output Noise (6A load): 7mVrms (85mVp-p) Output Noise (6A load, 16P-average): 50mVp-p Efficiency: up to 96% References Source: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/0_30V__0_7A_Adjustable_Switching_Power_Supply.html [1]: XL4016 datasheet: http://www.xlsemi.com/datasheet/xl4016%20datasheet.pdf [2]: MBR20100 datasheet: https://www.diodes.com/assets/Datasheets/MBR20100C.pdf [3]: TS4264 datasheet: https://www.mouser.com/datasheet/2/395/TS4264_D15-1142598.pdf [4]: MCP6002 datasheet: https://componentsearchengine.com/Datasheets/2/MCP6002T-I_SN.pdf [5]: Altium Designer: https://www.altium.com/yt/myvanitar [6]: SamacSys Altium plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [7]: Supported SamacSys plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/pcb-part-libraries [8]: XL4016 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/XL4016/XLSEMI [9]: MCP6002 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/search?term=mcp6002 [10]: TS4264 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/TS4264CW50%20RPG/Taiwan%20Semiconductor [11]: MBR20100 schematic symbols, PCb footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/MBR20100CT-G1/Diodes%20Inc. [12]: Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds2000xp/ [13]: Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds1000x-e-series-super-phosphor-oscilloscopes/ [14]: Siglent SDL2010X-E DC Load: https://siglentna.com/dc-electronic-load/sdl1000x/ [15]: Siglent SDM3045X Multimeter: https://siglentna.com/digital-multimeters/sdm3045x-digital-multimeter/
  13. Many electronic beginners are afraid of designing SMD boards and just stick to through-hole and dip components. The reason for this could be using the wrong electronic designing CAD software. This video intends to handle you a complete, although a simple example of a project using both SMD and through-hole components, design rules, tented vias, .. etc. Finally, you can download the Altium schematic and PCB files and play with them. References [1]: Altium Designer Electronic Design CAD software: https://www.altium.com/altium-designer/
  14. DC to DC converters are quite popular among electronic enthusiasts and are widely used within the industry. There are three major types of non-isolated DC to DC converters: buck, boost, and buck-boost. In this article/video, I used there major components such as the famous UC3843 chip, a power Schottky diode, and an N-Channel Mosfet to design a compact DC to DC boost converter. The input voltage could be as low as 9V that makes it suitable for a variety of applications, such as 12V to 18V conversion to power a laptop computer using a single 12V battery. I used Altium Designer 21 and SamacSys component libraries to design the schematic and PCB. The PCBs have been fabricated by the PCBWay in the green solder mask. Also, I examined the noise figure of the circuit using the Siglent SDS2102X Plus/SDS1104X-E oscilloscope and Siglent SDM3045X multimeter. So let’s get started! References Article: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/DC_to_DC_Boost_Converter_using_UC3843.html [1]: UC3843 Datasheet: https://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/uc3843.pdf?HQS=ti-null-null-sf-df-pf-sep-wwe&ts=1626017670986&ref_url=https%253A%252F%252Fcomponentsearchengine.com%252F [2]: MBR20100CT datasheet: https://www.diodes.com/assets/Datasheets/MBR20100C.pdf [3]: IRFZ44 datasheet: https://componentsearchengine.com/Datasheets/2/IRFZ44EPBF.pdf [4]: Altium Designer: Altium Designer - PCB Design Software [5]: SamacSys Altium plugin: Altium Designer PCB Library - FREE - Footprints - Symbols - 3D Models [6]: Supported SamacSys plugins: FREE Schematic Symbols & PCB Footprints - PCB Libraries - 3D [7]: UC3843 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: UC3843D8TR footprint, schematic symbol and 3D model by Texas Instruments [8]: IRFZ44 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: IRFZ44EPBF footprint, schematic symbol and 3D model by Infineon [9]: MBR20100 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: MBR20100CT-E1 footprint, schematic symbol and 3D model by Diodes Inc. [10]: Siglent SDL1020X-E DC load: SDL1000X/X-E Series Programmable DC Electronic Loads | Siglent [11]: Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds2000xp/ [12]: Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope: SDS1000X-E Series Super Phosphor Oscilloscopes | Siglent
  15. Infrared remote controllers are everywhere around us. The majority of home appliances are controlled using infrared remote controls. In this article/video, we learn to build a device that can decode (almost) any IR remote control and use the instructions to switch the relays (loads). So we can use this feature in a variety of applications without buying a new IR remote control and expensive hardware, such as turning ON/OFF the lights, opening/closing the curtains, ... etc. I have used an ATTiny85 microcontroller as the heart of the circuit. The device can record up to three IR codes in the EEPROM memory and switch 3 separate devices. Each relay can handle the currents up to 10A. The load switching mechanism (momentary ON/OFF, toggling, .. etc) can be programmed by the user. I used Altium Designer 21.4.1 and the SamacSys component libraries (SamacSys Altium Plugin) to design the Schematic and PCB. I also used the Siglent SDS2102X Plus/SDS1104X-E to analyze the IR signals. The device works stable and reacts well to the transmitted IR signals. So let’s get started and build this puppy! References Article: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/Infrared_Remote_Control_Decoder___Switcher_Board.html [1]: L7805 datasheet: https://www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/l78.pdf [2]: TS2937CW-5.0 datasheet: http://www.taiwansemi.com/products/datasheet/TS2937_E15.pdf [3]: VS1838 infrared receiver module datasheet: https://www.elecrow.com/download/Infrared%20receiver%20vs1838b.pdf [4]: FDN360P datasheet: https://www.onsemi.com/pdf/datasheet/fdn360p-d.pdf [5]: ATTiny85-20SUR datasheet: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/Atmel-2586-AVR-8-bit-Microcontroller-ATtiny25-ATtiny45-ATtiny85_Datasheet.pdf [6]: Si2302 datasheet: https://www.vishay.com/docs/63653/si2302dds.pdf [7]: Altium Designer electronic design CAD software: https://www.altium.com/altium-designer [8]: SamacSys Altium plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [9]: ATTiny85 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/ATTINY85-20SUR/Microchip [10]: TS2937-5.0 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/TS2937CW-5.0%20RP/Taiwan%20Semiconductor [11]: L7805 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/L7805CV/STMicroelectronics [12]: SI2302 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/SI2302DDS-T1-GE3/Vishay [13]: FDN360P schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/FDN360P/ON%20Semiconductor [14]: ATTinyCore: https://github.com/SpenceKonde/ATTinyCore [15]: IRRemote library: https://github.com/Arduino-IRremote/Arduino-IRremote [16]: Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/products/digital-oscilloscope/sds2000xp-series-digital-phosphor-oscilloscope [17]: Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds1000x-e-series-super-phosphor-oscilloscopes
  16. Does anybody know what's the problem with this earphone? so weird!
  17. In this video, I explain some theories behind a low pass active filter circuit, then I built a simple active low pass filter using the LM358 opamp. I tested the filter's behavior using the Siglent SDG1025 waveform generator and the Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope.
  18. Nowadays USB port is used widely for data transactions between electronic devices and computers. In many scenarios, there is no need to communicate with the USB port directly, therefore electronic designers use USB to UART (RS232-Serial) converter chips, so the USB port is converted to a virtual COM port on the computer. The initial thought of many designers is to use FTDI chips to do the USB to UART conversion. There is nothing wrong with FTDI chips, however, they are expensive. In this article/video, I introduced a cheap USB to UART converter module that uses the MCP2200 chip from Microchip. The converter supports both 3.3V and 5V serial logic levels and uses three LED indicators for power connection, data transmission, and data reception. The module supports the serial CTS and RTS pins, also six GPIOs that can be used for direct controlling of connected devices. The serial data of the module has been examined and decoded using the UART decoding feature of the Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope. So let’s get started! References Article:https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/Cheap_USB_to_UART_Converter_using_Microchip_MCP2200.html [1]: MCP2200 datasheet: https://www.mouser.se/datasheet/2/268/22228A-81933.pdf [2]: RT9166-33GX datashet: https://www.richtek.com/assets/product_file/RT9166=RT9166A/DS9166A-23.pdf [3]: MCP2200 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, and 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/MCP2200-I/SO/Microchip [4]: RT9166-33GX schematic symbol, PCB footprint, and 3D model:https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/RT9166-33GX/RICHTEK [5]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [6]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [7]: Microchip MCP2200 configuration utility: https://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/MCP2200 Configuration Utility v1.3.1.zip [8]: Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope: https://www.siglenteu.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds2000xp
  19. In this video, I have reviewed the DS-VC288 panel mount voltmeter/Ammeter using the Siglent SDM3045X benchtop multimeter. The VC288 meter did not present acceptable readings, especially in the current measurement. It uses an LM358 Opamp which is not suitable for this purpose and it does not show a linear behavior. The SDM3045X multimeter was used as a reference. I have tested the voltage and current readings separately.
  20. A tip: As I mentioned in the video, in the last revision of the PCB board (which is available for you), the distance between electrolytic capacitors and the power resistors has been increased, however, if you still have concerns about this, you can use 470uF-50V capacitors instead of 1000uf-50V capacitors which are smaller in diameter.
  21. Power supplies are one of the most popular topics in electronics. There are two major types of regulated power supply: linear and switching. Both power supply types introduce some advantages and disadvantages, however, a linear power supply offers better line and load regulation figures and it handles lower noise at the output, specifically when the power supply is adjustable and the output is under load; although its efficiency is lower than a switching power supply. In this article/video, I introduced an adjustable 30V-4A linear power supply that provides constant voltage and constant current adjustment. The output noise of the power supply is low and has measured using the power analysis feature of the Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope. All component packages are through-hole, so you don't need any special tool for soldering. Let's get started! Specifications Input Voltage (max): 35V [30V, max-tested] Output Voltage (min): 1.28V Output Voltage (max-tested): 27.35V [28.9Vin, no load, 25C] Output Current: 1.1mA to 4A(max continous) Output Noise (no load): 6-7mVpp Output Noise (1A load): 6-7mVpp Output Noise (2A load): 8-10mVpp References Article: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/30V_4A_Adjustable_Power_Supply__CC_CV_.html [1]: LM338 datasheet: https://www.mouser.com/datasheet/2/405/lm338-440432.pdf [2]: IRLZ44 datasheet: https://www.vishay.com/docs/91328/sihlz44.pdf [3]: LM358 datasheet: https://www.mouser.com/datasheet/2/308/lm358-d-299970.pdf [4]: 78L09 datasheet: https://www.jameco.com/Jameco/Products/ProdDS/192225.pdf [5]: LM358 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/LM358N%2FNOPB/Texas%20Instruments [6]: 78L09 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/MC78L09ACPG/ON%20Semiconductor [7]: LM338 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/LM338T%2FNOPB/Texas%20Instruments [8]: IRLZ44 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/IRLZ44NPBF/Infineon [9]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [10]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [11]: Siglent SDS2102x Plus oscilloscope: https://www.siglenteu.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds2000xp
  22. FM transmitters/receivers are among the top favorite circuits of any electronic enthusiast. In this article/video, I have introduced a complete digital FM receiver design that has equipped with an LCD screen and three push-buttons. It can search for the FM signals from 76MHz to 108MHz manually and automatically (Scan mode). The signal strength is also displayed as a bar graph on the LCD screen. The output sound is amplified by a 3W+3W Class-D stereo amplifier that handles high-quality and strong enough audio power. As a controller, I have used the cheap and popular Arduino-Nano board. So let’s get started! References Article: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/A_Digital_FM_Receiver_with_Arduino.html [1]: TEA5767 Datasheet: https://www.sparkfun.com/datasheets/Wireless/General/TEA5767.pdf [2]: TEA5767 Schematic Symbol, PCB Footprint, and 3D Model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/TEA5767HN%2FV3%2C118/Nexperia [3]: PAM8403 Datasheet: https://www.mouser.com/datasheet/2/115/PAM8403-247318.pdf [4]: PAM8403 Schematic Symbol, PCB Footprint, and 3D Model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/PAM8403DR/LITTELFUSE [5]: TS2937 Datasheet: https://www.mouser.com/datasheet/2/395/TS2937_D13-522475.pdf [6]: TS2937 Schematic Symbol, PCB Footprint, and 3D Model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/TS2937CW-5.0%20RP/Taiwan%20Semiconductor [7]: CAD Plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help
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