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sam.moshiri

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Everything posted by sam.moshiri

  1. Are you tired of dealing with the damaging effects of inrush currents on your industrial devices? Look no further than an AC inrush current limiter (soft starter). Inrush current, also known as surge current, is the large amount of current that flows into a load at start-up. This can cause damage to equipment, reduce its lifespan, and lead to costly downtime. But with an AC inrush current limiter, you can eliminate these problems. Simply, a soft starter works by limiting the initial current flow, ensuring a smooth and efficient start-up, while protecting your equipment from damage. So I decided to design this AC soft starter that is equipped with a fail-safe mechanism. During start-up, the inrush current passes through a power resistor, and after a delay (adjustable between 1ms to 1s), a 30A power Relay shorts the resistor and applies the full power to the load. If this Relay fails for whatever reason, the power resistor won’t melt everything; the logic circuit activates the fail-safe Relay that turns OFF the load to prevent any damage. 3 LEDs indicate the Supply, Normal, and Fault conditions. I selected the cheap ATTiny13 MCU as a controller. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 23. The fast component search engine (Octopart) allowed me to quickly consider components’ information and also generate the BOM. To get high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerber files to PCBWay. I used the Arduino IDE to write the MCU code, so it is pretty easy to follow and understand. Let’s get started 🙂 [Main] Full Documentation, Schematic, PCB, Direct Order [1]: ATTiny13 MCU: https://octopart.com/attiny13a-ssur-microchip-77761976?r=sp [2]: 10D561K MOV: https://octopart.com/mov-10d561k-bourns-19184788?r=sp [3]: HLK-PM12: https://datasheet.lcsc.com/szlcsc/1909111105_HI-LINK-HLK-PM24_C399250.pdf [4]: 78L05 SOT-89: https://octopart.com/ua78l05acpk-texas+instruments-525167?r=sp [5]: Si2302 Mosfet: https://octopart.com/si2302cds-t1-ge3-vishay-43172315?r=sp [6]: M7 Diode: https://octopart.com/m7-diotec-30502012?r=sp
  2. Nowadays home automation is a trending topic among electronic enthusiasts and even the mass population. People are busy with their life challenges, so an electronic device should take care of the home instead! The majority of such devices need internet or Wi-Fi for connectivity or they don’t offer a user-friendly GUI, but I decided to design a standalone wireless monitoring/controlling unit that can be adjusted using a graphical and touch-controlled LCD display. The device consists of a panelboard and a mainboard that communicate using 315MHz (or 433MHz) ASK transceivers. The panel side is equipped with a high-quality 4.3” capacitive-touch Nextion Display. The user can monitor the live temperature values and define the action threshold (to activate/deactivate the heater or cooler), humidity (to activate/deactivate the humidifier or dehumidifier), and ambient light (to turn ON/OFF the lights). The mainboard is equipped with 4 Relays to activate/deactivate the aforementioned loads. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 23. The fast component search engine (octopart) allowed me to quickly consider components’ information and also generate the BOM. To get high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerber files to PCBWay. I used the Arduino IDE to write the MCU code, so it is pretty easy to follow and understand. Designing a GUI using the Nextion tools was a pleasant experience that I will certainly follow for similar projects in the future. So let’s get started 🙂 Specifications Connectivity: Wireless ASK, 315MHz (or 433MHz) Parameters: Temperature, Humidity, Ambient Light Wireless Coverage: 100 to 200m (with Antennas) Display: 4.3” Graphical, Capacitive-Touch Input Voltage: 7.5 to 9V-DC (power adaptor connector) References article: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/Wireless_Home_Automation_Control_and_Monitoring_Using_a_Nextion_HMI_Display_24d9be1d.html [1]: L7805: https://octopart.com/l7805cp-stmicroelectronics-526753?r=sp [2]: SMBJ5CA: https://octopart.com/rnd+smbj5ca-rnd+components-103950670?r=sp [3]: 78L05: https://octopart.com/ua78l05cpk-texas+instruments-525289?r=sp [4]: ATMega328: https://octopart.com/atmega328pb-anr-microchip-77760227?r=sp [5]: Si2302: https://octopart.com/si2302cds-t1-e3-vishay-44452855?r=sp [6]: LM1-5D: https://octopart.com/lm1-5d-rayex-53719411?r=sp [7]: Altium Designer: https://www.altium.com/yt/myvanitar [8]: Nextion Display: https://bit.ly/3dY30gw
  3. Flyback is the most common circuit topology to build galvanically isolated AC to DC or DC to DC converters. Flyback circuit is cheap and relatively easy to manufacture, therefore nowadays the majority of home or industrial appliances are powered using AC to DC Flyback converters. In general, a Flyback converter is suitable for low-power applications, mostly below 100W. In this article/video, I designed a cheap AC-to-DC flyback converter using a DK124 IC that can deliver up to 18W continuously. I calculated the transformer to handle 12V at the output which can be easily modified to reach other output voltages as well. The DK124 chip does not need any auxiliary winding or even an external startup resistor. The 220V Mains input has been protected using a MOV, an NTC, and a Fuse. The PCB board is single-layer and all components are through-hole. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22. The fast component search engine (octopart) allowed me to quickly consider components’ information and also generate the BOM. To get high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerber files to PCBWay. To test the power supply, I used Siglent an SDL1020X-E DC Load, an SDM3045X Multimeter, and an SDS1104X-E/SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope. Specifications Input Voltage Range: 85 to 265V-AC Output Power: 18W Continuous Output Voltage: 12V-DC Switching Frequency: 65KHz Reference: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/220V_AC_to_12V_DC_18W_Switching_Power_Supply_81665a6c.html [1]: DK124: https://grupoautcomp.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Specification-IC-DK124.pdf [2]: 10D561: https://octopart.com/mov-10d561k-bourns-19184788?r=sp [3]: PC817: https://octopart.com/pc817x1j000f-sharp-39642331?r=sp [4]: TL431: https://octopart.com/tl431aclpr-texas+instruments-521800?r=sp
  4. The Full-Bridge (H-Bridge) is the most popular driver circuit to control brushed DC motors. The main advantage of a full bridge driver is the ability to change the rotation direction of the motor, without manually reversing the supply wires. I’ve already published the Half-bridge and H-bridge driver circuits before; however, I was receiving many requests and comments for a standalone H-Bridge driver to control the DC motors, without using any external board or a controller. Therefore, I introduced a cheap, compact, and standalone H-Bridge DC motor driver that can be embedded in a variety of mechatronic devices. A cheap ATTiny13 microcontroller controls everything and I used the Arduino IDE to write the microcontroller code. All components, except for the connectors, are SMD. The motor can be controlled in three modes: Forward, Stop, and Reverse. The user can adjust the rotation speed of the motor separately in the forward or reverse direction, using two panel-mounting potentiometers. The low ON-Resistance of the Mosfets allows you to use this circuit in high currents. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22. The fast component search engine (octopart) allowed me to quickly collect the components’ data and generate the BOM as well. To get high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerber files to PCBWay. To test the driver board, I disassembled an electric toy car and used its powerful 775 DC motor (plus the gearbox). It’s a cool experience, just build one and have fun! Specifications Input Voltage (Motor): 8-40VDC Supply Voltage (Controller): 12VDC PWM Frequency: 25KHz Motor Control: Forward-Stop-Reverse Motor Speed: [0 to 100%] Forward, [0 to 100%] Reverse References Article: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/A_Standalone_Full_Bridge_DC_Motor_Driver_2c7c2086.html [1]: ATTiny13 MCU: https://octopart.com/attiny13a-ssur-microchip-77761976?r=sp [2]: 78L05 SOT89: https://octopart.com/ka78l05aimtf-onsemi-84329328?r=sp [3]: IRF3205 D2PACK: https://octopart.com/irf3205strlpbf-infineon-65873335?r=sp [4]: IR2104: https://octopart.com/ir2104spbf-infineon-65872813?r=sp [5]: MicroCore Arduino Package: https://github.com/MCUdude/MicroCore [6]: Complied HEX file: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_FEbxj3XtWoZCNCxfpgcvCwcf9j8cqj-/view?usp=sharing
  5. Raspberry Pi Pico is a cute piece of hardware. It is equipped with a powerful dual-core RP2040 microcontroller that offers 2M (up to 16M) Flash and 264K SRAM memories. Such specifications make it suitable for a variety of hobby and industrial applications. In this article/video, I used a Pico board, a digital SHTC3 sensor, and a 2.4” colorful TFT display to build a graphical temperature and humidity measurement/control unit that can be used to monitor the home, workplace, indoor garden, devices … etc. The board was also equipped with two Relays that allow the user to set the cooling/heating limits and adjust the parameters in the GUI. The trickiest part of this project was the Pico code. I used the Pico C/C++ SDK library and invested a significant amount of time in designing the GUI and debugging the code. I should confess it was not an easy task. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium designer 22 and installed the missing component libraries using Altium’s manufacturer part search. By using the Octopart website, I was able to quickly gather the necessary component information and generate the BOM. Finally, to get high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerber files to PCBWay. It's a cool piece of hardware for anyone, so let’s get started References Article: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/Temperature_Humidity_Control_Unit_Using_a_Raspberry_Pi_Pico_66fdee4a.html [1]: 78M05: https://octopart.com/l78m05acdt-stmicroelectronics-2280839?r=sp [2]: TLV1117-33C: https://octopart.com/tlv1117-33cdcyr-texas+instruments-669251?r=sp [3]: Raspberry Pi Pico: https://octopart.com/sc0915-raspberry+pi-116090189?r=sp [4]: LM1-5D: https://octopart.com/lm1-5d-rayex-53719411?r=sp [5]: 2N7002: https://octopart.com/2n7002-t1-e3-vishay-55433894?r=sp
  6. Dealing with the 220V-AC mains voltage and measuring the AC loads' true power, voltage, and current parameters are always considered a big challenge for electronic designers, both in circuit design and calculations. The situation gets more complex when we deal with the inductive loads because inductive loads alter the sine-wave shape of the AC signal (resistive loads don’t). In this article/video, I introduced a circuit that can measure the AC voltage, RMS current, active power, apparent power, power factor, and energy consumption (KWh) of the loads. I used an Arduino-Nano board as a processor to make this more educational-friendly and attractive even for beginners. The device independently measures the aforementioned parameters and displays the results on a 4*20 LCD. The measurement error rate is around 0.5% or lower. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium designer 22 and installed the missing component libraries using Altium’s manufacturer part search. The Octopart website allowed me to quickly gather information about the components and make a BOM for the project. To get high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerber files to PCBWay and used the Siglent SDM3045X benchtop multimeter to calibrate the board. It's a cool device to be used in everyday electronics, so let’s get started 🙂 References Ref: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/High_Precision_Digital_AC_Energy_Meter_Circuit_Voltage_Current_Power_KWh_3a6bf090.html [1]: Arduino-Nano: https://octopart.com/a000005-arduino-20172777?r=sp [2]: HLW8032 English datasheet: https://github.com/MyVanitar/HLW8032/blob/main/DS_HLW8032_EN_Rev1.5.pdf [3]: TS2937CW50 (LM2937): https://octopart.com/ts2937cw50+rpg-taiwan+semiconductor-58281876?r=sp [4]: HLW8032 Arduino Library: https://github.com/MyVanitar/HLW8032
  7. A DC-to-DC converter is one of the most commonly used circuit topologies in electronics, especially in power supply applications. There are three major types of DC-to-DC converters (non-isolated): Buck, Boost, and Buck-Boost. Sometimes a buck converter is also called a step-down converter and a boost converter is also called a step-up converter. In this article/video, I introduce an adjustable buck converter circuit that uses an advanced converter chip, made by Texas Instruments, which is TPS5430. It’s a high-frequency and 95% efficient chip. In the PCB layout design of such converters, several PCB design rules should be followed, otherwise, the circuit might generate a significant amount of radiated emission and suffer output instability. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and used the manufacturer part search feature to directly import the components into the PCB project. Then, generated the BOM list using the free OctoPart services. To get high-quality fabricated boards, I sent the Gerbers to PCBWay and tested the circuit for output stability and noise, using a DC load, A multimeter, and an oscilloscope. Soon later, I will also perform the step-response test and demonstrate the results. Stay connected! Specifications Input Voltage: 5.5V to 36V Output Voltage: 1.22Vmin (variable) Output Current (continuous): 3A Output Current (peak): 4A Maximum output voltage drop: 10mV (3A load) Output Noise: 12mVp-p (no load), 43mVp-p (3A load), 20MHz-BW References Ref: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/36V_3A_Adjustable_Efficient_DC_to_DC_Step_Down_Converter_aca08813.html [1]: TPS5430: https://octopart.com/tps5430mddarep-texas+instruments-12192395?r=sp [2]: B360B-13-F (or SS34, SMB package): https://octopart.com/b360b-13-f-diodes+inc.-325834?r=sp
  8. Proper thermal dissipation is an essential rule for nowadays electronics. The best operating temperature for the electronic components is 25 degrees (standard room temperature). Thermal dissipation in some commercial devices is not done properly which affects the lifetime and performance of the devices. So, embedding a compact automatic cooling Fan controller board would be useful. Also, it can be used to protect your own designed circuits and their power components, such as regulators, Mosfets, power transistors … etc. Previously, I had introduced a circuit to control the cooling fans, however, my intention was not to use any microcontroller and keep it as simple as possible. So, the device was a simple ON/OFF switch for the FAN, depending on the defined temperature threshold. This time, I decided to design a complete and more professional circuit to control the majority of the standard FANs (25KHz PWM) using an LM35 temperature sensor and an ATTiny13 microcontroller. I used SMD components and the PCB board is compact. It can control one or several standard 3-wires or 4-wires FANs, connected in parallel, such as CPU Fans. Moreover, the target device/component can be protected against over-temperature using a Relay. The user is also notified by visual/acoustic warnings (a flashing LED and a Buzzer). To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and the SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin). To get high-quality fabricated PCB boards, you can send the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchase original components using the componentsearchengine.com. I initially tested the circuit on a breadboard. I used the Siglent SDM3045X multimeter to accurately examine the voltages and the Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope to examine the shape, duty cycle, and frequency of the PWM pulse. References Ref: https://www.eeweb.com/pwm-cooling-fan-controller-and-over-temperature-protection-using-lm35-and-attiny13/ [1]: ATTiny13 datasheet: https://componentsearchengine.com/Datasheets/1/ATtiny13-20SSU.pdf [2]: 78L05 datasheet: https://www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/l78l.pdf [3]: 2N7002 datasheet: https://datasheet.datasheetarchive.com/originals/distributors/Datasheets-26/DSA-502170.pdf [4]: 2N7002 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/2N7002/Nexperia [5]: L78L05 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/L78L05ABD13TR/STMicroelectronics [6]: ATTiny13 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/ATTINY13-20SSU/Microchip [7]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [8]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [9]: MicroCore board manager: https://github.com/MCUdude/MicroCore#analog-pins [10]: Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/product/sds1104x-e-100-mhz/
  9. Proper thermal dissipation is an essential rule for nowadays electronics. The best operating temperature for the electronic components is 25 degrees (standard room temperature). Thermal dissipation in some commercial devices is not done properly which affects the lifetime and performance of the devices. So, embedding a compact automatic cooling Fan controller board would be useful. Also, it can be used to protect your own designed circuits and their power components, such as regulators, Mosfets, power transistors … etc. Previously, I had introduced a circuit to control the cooling fans, however, my intention was not to use any microcontroller and keep it as simple as possible. So, the device was a simple ON/OFF switch for the FAN, depending on the defined temperature threshold. This time, I decided to design a complete and more professional circuit to control the majority of the standard FANs (25KHz PWM) using an LM35 temperature sensor and an ATTiny13 microcontroller. I used SMD components and the PCB board is compact. It can control one or several standard 3-wires or 4-wires FANs, connected in parallel, such as CPU Fans. Moreover, the target device/component can be protected against over-temperature using a Relay. The user is also notified by visual/acoustic warnings (a flashing LED and a Buzzer). To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and the SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin). To get high-quality fabricated PCB boards, you can send the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchase original components using the componentsearchengine.com. I initially tested the circuit on a breadboard. I used the Siglent SDM3045X multimeter to accurately examine the voltages and the Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope to examine the shape, duty cycle, and frequency of the PWM pulse. References Ref: https://www.eeweb.com/pwm-cooling-fan-controller-and-over-temperature-protection-using-lm35-and-attiny13/ [1]: ATTiny13 datasheet: https://componentsearchengine.com/Datasheets/1/ATtiny13-20SSU.pdf [2]: 78L05 datasheet: https://www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/l78l.pdf [3]: 2N7002 datasheet: https://datasheet.datasheetarchive.com/originals/distributors/Datasheets-26/DSA-502170.pdf [4]: 2N7002 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/2N7002/Nexperia [5]: L78L05 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/L78L05ABD13TR/STMicroelectronics [6]: ATTiny13 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/ATTINY13-20SSU/Microchip [7]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [8]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [9]: MicroCore board manager: https://github.com/MCUdude/MicroCore#analog-pins [10]: Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/product/sds1104x-e-100-mhz/
  10. Whenever you hear the transformerless supply term, you initially imagine the capacitor-based solution, which means a high voltage capacitor in series with the mains line, then a bridge rectifier, a Zener diode, a filtering capacitor, and so on. Such a circuit is not just able to deliver sufficient current for many applications, also, it is not a reliable solution for the industry, although you might see such circuits in some cheap products that are designed to have a low cost. A month ago, I was repairing a washing machine mainboard. In the examination process, I realized that it is equipped with an LNK304 chip that is used in transformerless supplies. So I decided to design a circuit based on this chip to be used in your applications. The circuit contains 220VAC mains input protection, output filtering, and a regulator. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and the SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin). To get high-quality fabricated PCB boards, I sent the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchased original components using the componentsearchengine.com. To test the current handling and stability of the output voltage, I used the Siglent SDL1020X-E DC Load and examined the power supply output noise using the Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope. References main: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/220Vac_to_5Vdc_Transformerless_Power_Supply_Using_LNK304_5b2e2d7d.html DB107G schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/DB107-G/Comchip%20Technology LNK304G schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/LNK304GN-TL/Power Integrations 78M05 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/MC78M05CDTG/onsemi Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions Siglent SDL1020X-E DC load: https://siglentna.com/dc-electronic-load/sdl1000x/ Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope: https://www.siglenteu.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds2000xp/
  11. An ultrasonic range finder is a useful tool in a variety of real-life and robotic applications, such as in obstacle avoidance and distance measurement systems. The ultrasonic range finder measures the distance by emitting a 40KHz pulse of ultrasonic sound that travels through the air until it hits an object, then it measures the delay of the reflected signal and sends proper commands to other units. I used an SRF05 ultrasonic sensor and an ATTiny85 microcontroller. The distance data is displayed on a 128*64 OLED screen, both in centimeters and inches. Also, a horizontal bar graph provides a visual estimation of the distance. The MCU code was developed using the Arduino IDE. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 22 and SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin). To get high-quality PCB boards, I sent the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchased original components using componentsearchengine.com. To examine the current consumption of the circuit, I used the Siglent SDM3045X multimeter. Isn’t cool?! So let’s get started. Specifications Input Voltage: 6-24VDC Current Consumption: 24mA Detection Range: 2-400cm (see text) Distance Data: Centimeters, Inches, Bar Graph Display: 128*64-Yellow Blue OLED References Ref: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/An_Ultrasonic_Range_Finder_Using_an_SRF05_and_an_ATTiny85_cff7c5cf.html Tool: Altium Designer + Legal License (Free): https://www.altium.com/yt/myvanitar [1]: TS2937CW50 datasheet: https://www.taiwansemi.com/assets/uploads/datasheet/TS2937_E15.pdf [2]: ATTiny85 datasheet: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/Atmel-2586-AVR-8-bit-Microcontroller-ATtiny25-ATtiny45-ATtiny85_Datasheet.pdf [3]: TS2937 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/TS2937CW-5.0%20RP/Taiwan%20Semiconductor [4]: ATTiny85 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/ATTINY85-20SUR/Microchip [5]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [6]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [7]: ATTinyCore Arduino Board Manager: https://github.com/SpenceKonde/ATTinyCore [8]: Arduino New Ping library: https://bitbucket.org/teckel12/arduino-new-ping/wiki/Home [9]: Arduino Tiny4KOLED library: https://www.arduino.cc/reference/en/libraries/tiny4koled [10]: Siglent SDM3045X multimeter: https://siglentna.com/digital-multimeters/sdm3045x-digital-multimeter/
  12. Nowadays, Lithium batteries are used extensively in portable devices, such as cellphones, laptop computers, electronic gadgets, … etc. There is a standard industry-defined procedure (cycle) for charging the lithium-ion/lithium-polymer batteries, otherwise, the lifetime of the batteries is reduced significantly or even they might explode and catch fire. As a basic rule of thumb, a lithium battery should be charged at the rate of 0.5C to 1C. In this article/video, I have introduced a universal double lithium battery charger that the charging current (C rate) can be adjusted simply by changing a resistor value. You just need a 5V power source (such as a mobile charger) and a USB Type-C cable. To design the schematic and PC, I used Altium Designer 22 and the SamacSys component libraries (Altium Plugin). To get high-quality PCB boards, I sent the Gerbers to PCBWay and purchased original components using componentsearchengine.com. To examine the charging current/voltage, I used the Siglent SDM3045X multimeter. Isn’t cool?!, So let’s get started! References Ref: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/Double_Lithium_Ion_Lithium_Polymer_USB_Type_C_Charger_863d1ae1.html [1]: MCP73831 datasheet: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/20001984g.pdf [2]: MCP73831 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/MCP73831T-2DCI%2FOT/Microchip [3]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [4]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [5]: Siglent SDM3045X multimeter: https://siglentna.com/digital-multimeters/sdm3045x-digital-multimeter/ Altium Designer + License (Free): https://www.altium.com/yt/myvanitar
  13. The white noise generator circuit is a handy tool that can be used to examine the circuit or a communication line under some random noises to make sure about the stability of the device in real and harsh environments. The current consumption of the device is low, so you can power the circuit using a small 12V-23A battery. if you have access to a 3D printer, you can build a nice enclosure for the circuit. The schematic and PCB have been designed using Altium Designer 22. The output white noise has been tested using the Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope. References Altium Designer + License (Free): https://www.altium.com/yt/myvanitar
  14. The high temperature of the power components is a known phenomenon in electronics. To overcome this challenge, the designers mount heatsinks on the components to dissipate the heat, however, in many commercial and home appliance devices, the embedded heatsink is not adequate and the air must be circulated faster to reduce the heatsink and component temperature, otherwise, the lifetime of the component is reduced significantly. The proposed automatic FAN controller board is simple, compact, and can be embedded inside commercial devices. The LM35 temperature sensor could be fixed on the heatsink using some silicon glue. The user can easily set the temperature threshold using a potentiometer. The board can be supplied using a 5V or a 12V supply, therefore a variety of 5V, 12V, miniature, and PC FANs can be used. I used Altium Designer 21 and SamacSys component libraries (SamacSys Altium plugin) to draw the schematic and PCB. Except for the connectors, all components are SMD and easy to solder. References Source: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/Cooling_FAN_Controller_using_an_LM35_8d3d76cb.html [1]: LM358 datasheet: https://www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/lm358.pdf [2]: SI2302 datasheet: https://www.vishay.com/docs/63653/si2302dds.pdf [3]: LM358 schematic symbol, pcb footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/LM358D/STMicroelectronics [4]: Si2302 schematic symbol, pcb footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/SI2302DDS-T1-GE3/Vishay [5]: Electronic designing CAD software plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/library-loader-help [6]: Altium Designer plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions
  15. DC to DC buck converters is a famous topology in the electronic and a widely used circuit in electronic devices. A buck converter steps down the input voltage while it increases the output current. In this article/video, I have discussed a DC to DC buck converter that can be used effectively as a switching power supply. The output voltage and current are adjustable: 1.25V to 30V and 10mA to 6A (continuous). The power supply supports the constant voltage (CV) and constant current (CC) features. Two LEDs demonstrate the CV and CC status. The circuit is compact and both sides of the PCB have been used to mount the components. To design the schematic and PCB, I used Altium Designer 21, also the SamacSys component libraries (Altium plugin) to install the missing schematic symbols/PCB footprints. To get high-quality fabricated PCB boards, I sent the Gerbers to PCBWay. To test the circuit, I used the power analysis feature of the Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope (or SDS1104X-E), Siglent SDL1020X-E DC Load, and Siglent SDM3045X multimeter. Isn’t cool, so let’s get started! Specifications Input Voltage: 8V to 35VDC Output Voltage: 1.25V to 32VDC Output Current (continuous): 10mA to 6A Output Current (short period): 7A to 8A Output Noise (no load): 6mVrms (9mVp-p) Output Noise (6A load): 7mVrms (85mVp-p) Output Noise (6A load, 16P-average): 50mVp-p Efficiency: up to 96% References Source: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/0_30V__0_7A_Adjustable_Switching_Power_Supply.html [1]: XL4016 datasheet: http://www.xlsemi.com/datasheet/xl4016%20datasheet.pdf [2]: MBR20100 datasheet: https://www.diodes.com/assets/Datasheets/MBR20100C.pdf [3]: TS4264 datasheet: https://www.mouser.com/datasheet/2/395/TS4264_D15-1142598.pdf [4]: MCP6002 datasheet: https://componentsearchengine.com/Datasheets/2/MCP6002T-I_SN.pdf [5]: Altium Designer: https://www.altium.com/yt/myvanitar [6]: SamacSys Altium plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [7]: Supported SamacSys plugins: https://www.samacsys.com/pcb-part-libraries [8]: XL4016 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/XL4016/XLSEMI [9]: MCP6002 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/search?term=mcp6002 [10]: TS4264 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/TS4264CW50%20RPG/Taiwan%20Semiconductor [11]: MBR20100 schematic symbols, PCb footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/MBR20100CT-G1/Diodes%20Inc. [12]: Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds2000xp/ [13]: Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds1000x-e-series-super-phosphor-oscilloscopes/ [14]: Siglent SDL2010X-E DC Load: https://siglentna.com/dc-electronic-load/sdl1000x/ [15]: Siglent SDM3045X Multimeter: https://siglentna.com/digital-multimeters/sdm3045x-digital-multimeter/
  16. Many electronic beginners are afraid of designing SMD boards and just stick to through-hole and dip components. The reason for this could be using the wrong electronic designing CAD software. This video intends to handle you a complete, although a simple example of a project using both SMD and through-hole components, design rules, tented vias, .. etc. Finally, you can download the Altium schematic and PCB files and play with them. References [1]: Altium Designer Electronic Design CAD software: https://www.altium.com/altium-designer/
  17. DC to DC converters are quite popular among electronic enthusiasts and are widely used within the industry. There are three major types of non-isolated DC to DC converters: buck, boost, and buck-boost. In this article/video, I used there major components such as the famous UC3843 chip, a power Schottky diode, and an N-Channel Mosfet to design a compact DC to DC boost converter. The input voltage could be as low as 9V that makes it suitable for a variety of applications, such as 12V to 18V conversion to power a laptop computer using a single 12V battery. I used Altium Designer 21 and SamacSys component libraries to design the schematic and PCB. The PCBs have been fabricated by the PCBWay in the green solder mask. Also, I examined the noise figure of the circuit using the Siglent SDS2102X Plus/SDS1104X-E oscilloscope and Siglent SDM3045X multimeter. So let’s get started! References Article: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/DC_to_DC_Boost_Converter_using_UC3843.html [1]: UC3843 Datasheet: https://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/uc3843.pdf?HQS=ti-null-null-sf-df-pf-sep-wwe&ts=1626017670986&ref_url=https%253A%252F%252Fcomponentsearchengine.com%252F [2]: MBR20100CT datasheet: https://www.diodes.com/assets/Datasheets/MBR20100C.pdf [3]: IRFZ44 datasheet: https://componentsearchengine.com/Datasheets/2/IRFZ44EPBF.pdf [4]: Altium Designer: Altium Designer - PCB Design Software [5]: SamacSys Altium plugin: Altium Designer PCB Library - FREE - Footprints - Symbols - 3D Models [6]: Supported SamacSys plugins: FREE Schematic Symbols & PCB Footprints - PCB Libraries - 3D [7]: UC3843 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: UC3843D8TR footprint, schematic symbol and 3D model by Texas Instruments [8]: IRFZ44 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: IRFZ44EPBF footprint, schematic symbol and 3D model by Infineon [9]: MBR20100 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: MBR20100CT-E1 footprint, schematic symbol and 3D model by Diodes Inc. [10]: Siglent SDL1020X-E DC load: SDL1000X/X-E Series Programmable DC Electronic Loads | Siglent [11]: Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds2000xp/ [12]: Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope: SDS1000X-E Series Super Phosphor Oscilloscopes | Siglent
  18. Infrared remote controllers are everywhere around us. The majority of home appliances are controlled using infrared remote controls. In this article/video, we learn to build a device that can decode (almost) any IR remote control and use the instructions to switch the relays (loads). So we can use this feature in a variety of applications without buying a new IR remote control and expensive hardware, such as turning ON/OFF the lights, opening/closing the curtains, ... etc. I have used an ATTiny85 microcontroller as the heart of the circuit. The device can record up to three IR codes in the EEPROM memory and switch 3 separate devices. Each relay can handle the currents up to 10A. The load switching mechanism (momentary ON/OFF, toggling, .. etc) can be programmed by the user. I used Altium Designer 21.4.1 and the SamacSys component libraries (SamacSys Altium Plugin) to design the Schematic and PCB. I also used the Siglent SDS2102X Plus/SDS1104X-E to analyze the IR signals. The device works stable and reacts well to the transmitted IR signals. So let’s get started and build this puppy! References Article: https://www.pcbway.com/blog/technology/Infrared_Remote_Control_Decoder___Switcher_Board.html [1]: L7805 datasheet: https://www.st.com/resource/en/datasheet/l78.pdf [2]: TS2937CW-5.0 datasheet: http://www.taiwansemi.com/products/datasheet/TS2937_E15.pdf [3]: VS1838 infrared receiver module datasheet: https://www.elecrow.com/download/Infrared%20receiver%20vs1838b.pdf [4]: FDN360P datasheet: https://www.onsemi.com/pdf/datasheet/fdn360p-d.pdf [5]: ATTiny85-20SUR datasheet: http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/Atmel-2586-AVR-8-bit-Microcontroller-ATtiny25-ATtiny45-ATtiny85_Datasheet.pdf [6]: Si2302 datasheet: https://www.vishay.com/docs/63653/si2302dds.pdf [7]: Altium Designer electronic design CAD software: https://www.altium.com/altium-designer [8]: SamacSys Altium plugin: https://www.samacsys.com/altium-designer-library-instructions [9]: ATTiny85 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/ATTINY85-20SUR/Microchip [10]: TS2937-5.0 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/TS2937CW-5.0%20RP/Taiwan%20Semiconductor [11]: L7805 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/L7805CV/STMicroelectronics [12]: SI2302 schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/SI2302DDS-T1-GE3/Vishay [13]: FDN360P schematic symbol, PCB footprint, 3D model: https://componentsearchengine.com/part-view/FDN360P/ON%20Semiconductor [14]: ATTinyCore: https://github.com/SpenceKonde/ATTinyCore [15]: IRRemote library: https://github.com/Arduino-IRremote/Arduino-IRremote [16]: Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/products/digital-oscilloscope/sds2000xp-series-digital-phosphor-oscilloscope [17]: Siglent SDS1104X-E oscilloscope: https://siglentna.com/digital-oscilloscopes/sds1000x-e-series-super-phosphor-oscilloscopes
  19. Does anybody know what's the problem with this earphone? so weird!
  20. In this video, I explain some theories behind a low pass active filter circuit, then I built a simple active low pass filter using the LM358 opamp. I tested the filter's behavior using the Siglent SDG1025 waveform generator and the Siglent SDS2102X Plus oscilloscope.
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