Measuring seismic activity using ProtoCentral OpenPressure

Seismic activity or “Vibrations of the earth” is measured using ProtoCentral’s OpenPressure 24-bit DAQ System.

A geophone is a magnetic device used to measure the Earth’s normal vibrations (some abnormal during events such as earthquakes). These movements are also present when there is a small explosion (commonly used for mining and exploration purposes).

Measuring seismic activity using ProtoCentral OpenPressure – [Link]

iSwitchPi Adds an Intelligent Power Switch to Your Raspberry Pi

by Peter Boxler :

Native Raspberry Pi does not have an On/Off switch and there is no easy way to shutdown the Pi while keeping the filesystem intact. This Intelligent Power Switch allows just that: Power-On the Pi by pressing a pushbutton and also properly Power-Off the Pi with another press on the same button. The intelligence is provided by a program running in an AVR MCU ATtiny44. This C-program implements a Finite State Machine in the MCU. A small Python script is running in the Pi itself. Just one GPIO-Pin is used for two-way communication. In addition, a variable frequency square wave is available for externally interrupting the Pi.

iSwitchPi Adds an Intelligent Power Switch to Your Raspberry Pi – [Link]

Teardown and analysis of microwave (26.5GHz) electro-mechanical step attenuators

Teardown and analysis of microwave (26.5GHz) electro-mechanical step attenuators from The Signal Path:

In this short episode Shahriar takes a close look at a pair of Hewlett Packard microwave electro-mechanical step attenuators operating up to 26.5GHz. Mechanical attenuators offer excellent repeatability, low insertion loss and nearly limitless linearity. The teardown reveals that the construction of both modules is very similar on the microwave path. In fact, the lower-frequency model still uses the same attenuator components. The newer model employs electronic control circuity while the older generation attenuator uses purely mechanically controlled DC path. Both models use a solenoid style actuators for step attenuation control.

Teardown and analysis of microwave (26.5GHz) electro-mechanical step attenuators – [Link]

Make Your Own Arduino Nano In The Simplest Way (DIY – Arduino Nano)

In today’s post, we are going to learn how to make an Arduino nano at home. Electronics enthusiast Pratik Makwana designed this project in Every step in this project is well-explained. If you already don’t know what Arduino Nano is then here is a brief introduction: Arduino Nano is a tiny yet strong member of the Arduino family. It’s powered by an ATMega328P microcontroller running on 16MHz. But, the main strength is its very small form factor.

Arduino Nnao
Arduino Nano

Now, let’s get started and make your own Arduino Nano in no time.


  • Copper clad board (Double-sided)
  • Ferric Chloride (FeCl3)
  • Acetone (Nail polish remover)
  • Glossy Paper
  • LASER Printer
  • Marker Pen
  • Scissors
  • Plastic container
  • Sandpaper
  • Safety gloves (Optional)
  • Latex gloves
  • Saw – For copper board cutting
  • Laminator or iron
  • Components of Arduino Nano (Given later)

PCB Designing:

This is a very important step of this tutorial. You need to draw the circuit of Arduino Nano first. Then you’ll design the PCB using the schematic. Design the schematic diagram in an EDA tool (Electronic design automation Software).
Here is a list of EDA Tools:

EAGLE is the most widely used PCB and schematic design software. Though my personal favorite is Proteus. You can use any software from the list.

Importing the Schematic File to PCB Editor
Importing the Schematic File to PCB Editor

To make the schematic, use the Arduino Nano Circuit Diagram and Arduino Nano Components List. Once it’s drawn completely, open the PCB designing part of the software and you’ll see that schematic is imported there. Now place the components in correct places and connect them using traces. If you are using EAGLE then you can simply download the Arduino Nano Schematic File for EAGLE and Arduino Nano PCB File for EAGLE. Open the .brd file (PCB file) to print the PCB. You can also modify it if you wish.

Place the parts in correct position
Place the parts in correct position
Connect the components and the PCB is ready
Connect the components and the PCB is ready


  • Use Only Laser printer only.
  • Use glossy papers to print.
  • Set scale factor to 1.
  • Before top layer printing, you need to mirror the image of the top layer layout.

Cut The Copper Clad Board:

Now, cut the copper clad board according to the dimensions of the PCB. You can use a hacksaw to cut it off. Be precise about the dimensions. If it’s smaller than the actual PCB then you have to do it again. Also, cut the printed glossy paper as per the size of PCB.

Cut the copper clad board using a hacksaw
Cut the copper clad board using a hacksaw

Toner Transfer and Etching Process:

In this step, the PCB design from glossy paper will be transferred to the copper board. All you need to do is place the printed side of the glossy paper on the copper board and apply both pressure and heat. You can use a modified laminator machine or an iron for this purpose. Why “modified”? Because toner transfer method requires a temperature of 210°C, where a laminator can provide 150°C maximum.

Put the board in FeCl3 solution for a while
Put the board in FeCl3 solution for a while

Make your copper clad board as clean as possible beforehand. You can use sandpaper and alcohol to do this. When the toner is transferred successfully, prepare the ferric chloride (FeCl3) solution. Before putting the board into the solution check carefully for any broken path. If found, draw it with a marker. After the etching process, use the acetone to clean the board.

After washing the PCB with Acetone
After washing the PCB with Acetone

Drilling & Soldering:

Drill the PCB using PCB drill machine. Choose the drill bit wisely else components may not fit. Now, place the components on the PCB and solder them. You can use a helping hand device to get it done nicely.

Upper layer of PCB
Upper layer of PCB
Lower layer of PCB
Lower layer of PCB

Burning The Arduino Bootloader:

In this step, you’ll need another Arduino board (e.g. Arduino UNO) to burn the bootloader to your newly made Arduino Nano for the first time. Open Arduino IDE and upload the ArduinoISP sketch to the Arduino UNO from examples option. Now, connect your Arduino Nano with Arduino UNO over SPI bus following the given instructions:

  • Arduino UNO     >>    Arduino Nano
  • ——————————————-
  • SS (Pin 10)         >>     RESET (Pin 29)
  • MISO (Pin 11)    >>     MISO (Pin 16)
  • MOSI (Pin 12)    >>    MOSI (Pin 15)
  • SCK (Pin 13)       >>    SCK (Pin 17)
  • 5V                         >>    VCC
  • GND                    >>    GND
Follow this instruction to burn bootloader
Follow this instruction to burn bootloader

After making the connections, go to Arduino IDE and follow the given instructions:

  1. Select Tool  >>  Board  >>  Arduino Nano
  2. Select Tool  >>  Port  >>  Select your Arduino UNO COM Port
  3. Select Tool  >>  Programmer  >>  Arduino as ISP
  4. Select Tool  >>  Burn Bootloader

Wait for the “Done burning bootloader” message to appear.


Well, your Arduino Nano is now ready for a test run. This time you won’t need another Arduino to upload codes. Follow the instructions and connect a USB to TTL converter (a.k.a USB to UART converter) with the Arduino nano to upload sketches.

  • USB to TTL Converter (CP2102)  >>  Arduino Nano
  • —————————————————————-
  • VCC        >>     VCC
  • TX          >>    RX (Pin 30)
  • RX         >>    TX (Pin 31)
  • DTR      >>    RESET (Pin 29)
  • GND     >>    GND
  1. After making the connections, go to Arduino IDE and perform the following tasks:
  2. Select File  >>  Examples  >>  01.Basics  >>  Blink
  3. Select Tool  >>  Board  >>  Arduino Nano
  4. Select Tool  >>  Port  >>  Select your Arduino UNO COM Port
  5. Select Tool  >>  Programmer  >>  AVRISP MKII

After that, upload Blink Sketch to Arduino Nano and wait for the “Done Uploading” message. LED connected to pin 13 should blink if everything is OK. Now you can upload any sketch you wish to your home made Arduino Nano.


So, this is how you can make your Arduino Nano. All you need for this project is PCB designing skill and a pretty good soldering skill as you have to deal with SMD components. This way you can make custom Arduino Nano that will fit your project perfectly. Watch the video to have a more clear idea:


Explanation of the Components on a Raspberry Pi

In this video, Circuit Basics unbox a new Raspberry Pi B+ and show you the main components on the board. It’s a good primer to watch before you connect it to a monitor, keyboard, or router for the first time.

Explanation of the Components on a Raspberry Pi [Link]

PingPong IoT Development Board – Connecting Hardware to the Cloud

Germany-based Round Solutions developed the PingPong, a powerful and flexible hardware platform for IoT and machine-to-machine (M2M) applications. The PingPong can be used for both wired and wireless connections. The modular hardware design can integrate custom-specific applications and communication standards into a single solution platform that has a very small form factor.

The basic hardware platform of PingPong has a 32-bit 200MHz Microchip PIC32MZ microcontroller unit (MCU) running C/C++ code. It supports RTOS or Real Time Operating System which is available as Open Source Software so that developers can adapt their applications individually and bring them to market more swiftly. The base board of PingPong has following features:

  •  A high-speed cellular module
  • A component for high-precision Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
  • An Internet connectivity module
  • USB
  • CAN-Bus and many other components

    PingPong - The IoT Development Board RTOS 3G Version
    PingPong – The IoT Development Board RTOS 3G Version

One amazing feature is, the high-speed cellular module and the numerous interfaces can be controlled over the cloud. So, you don’t have to keep it wired all the time in order to control all those modules.

Technical Information:

Having an area of 85×52 mm², the PingPong is really tiny in size compared to its features. It has a booming 4 MB flash memory which is perfect for IoT purpose. PingPong beats other IoT modules with the wireless technologies it possesses – 2G, 3G, Galileo E1, GLONASS, and GPS. Supported bands(MHz) for cellular communication are 1800, 1900, 2100, 850, and 900. It communicates with other MCUs over I²C protocol which is widely used by almost all types of MCUs.

The greatest strength of PingPong is its expandability. The developer can overcome all the limitations of PingPong by adding a variety of expansion cards to the PingPong platform. Some examples of expansion cards are, wireless local area network (WLAN), Bluetooth, input/output (I/0), Iridium satellite communications, ISM/RF, SigFox, near-field communication (NFC), radio-frequency identification (RFID), and camera connectivity.


  • Send and receive data: Pingpong offers different possibilities for sending and receiving data. Whether it’s wired over Ethernet or on the go with built-in GSM/GPRS module, PingPong does its job of exchanging data continuously.
  • Remote control: The PingPong can be used to control processes remotely via its outputs. Using the digital output with a relay can either enable or disable the power supply of an application.
  • Positioning: With its built-in GNSS and GPS module, the PingPong can also be used to determine position, motion, speed and acceleration.
  • Telemetry: The PingPong can be connected to a wide variety of sensors to process digital and analog measurements. Thus, for example, temperature values collected from a temperature sensor can be transferred via analog input to the PingPong.

And there are much more applications. From hobby projects to industrial development, sensor data collection to the smart home project – anywhere you can use this versatile board.

PingPong supports numerous expansion cards
PingPong supports numerous expansion cards

Important Links:

To learn more on this amazing IoT board, watch these three videos:


The PingPong is a surprisingly powerful IoT module. It’s a developer’s dream. Having all these features in one package is truly outstanding. The feature of adding expansion cards makes it even stronger.

You can purchase your own PingPong from at €199.00. It may seem to be a bit overpriced, but it’s really not. Just consider the features you are getting in a single package and you’ll realize it.

Build Your Next IoT Device With GOBLIN 2

Designed for industry, makers, and visionary students, Verse Technology presents GOBLIN 2, its new card with the best of Arduino technology.

GOBLIN 2 is an IoT development board that unlocks the potential of the Internet of Things. It has been built based on the high-performance 16MHz ATmega328P microcontroller with a built-in SIM5320A connectivity module, and high accuracy 16-channel GPS.

The board contains 10 digital I/O ports half of them work as PWM, and 6 analog pins. It also integrates connectivity for each RS-485 protocol and voltage outputs of 24V, 5V and 3.3V that are ideal for industrial sensors or sensors with analog/digital signal.

The SIM5320A incorporates a dual-band HSDPA/WCDMA and Quad-Band GSM/GPRS/EDGE which gives GOBLIN 2 the connectivity with web servers through any cellular web. It also includes inlets/outlets to connect peripherals like keyboards, microphones, speakers, and thus exploit better the cellular network.

GOBLIN 2 Introduction video:

Technical specifications of GOBLIN 2:

  • Dimensions: 65.5mm x 82.2mm
  • Microcontroller: ATmega328P
  • CPU Speed: 16 MHz
  • Memory: 1KB EEPROM, 32KB Flash, 2KB SRAM
  • External Power Input: Micro USB 2.0 5V, Solar Panel 5V up to 200mA, 3.7V battery charger.
  • Power Output: 3.3V 300mA, 5V 3A, 24V 500mA.
  • Ports:
    • 6 ADC input – 10 bits resolution
    • 10 digital in/out – 5 PWM
    • 1 Micro USB Up to 115.2k baud
  • Connectivity:
    • SIM5320A with Header USB 2.0 interface
    • Header to Keypad, microphone and speaker for SIM I/O
    • High accuracy 16 channel GPS
    • RS-485 protocol 10Mbps Up to 256 nodes on the bus

GOBLIN 2 is powered by Li-Po battery of 3.7V to 4.2V, which can be charged through a solar cell or a Micro-USB thanks to its built-in battery management module. With an integrated voltage converter, GOBLIN can offer three output voltages; 24V to industrial sensors, 5v to charges like servomotors or related sensors with that kind of supply voltage and 3.3v for communication devices such a RF, Wi-Fi, sensors and others.

The board’s microcontroller can be programmed with Arduino IDE or Atmel Studio via micro USB, which also can be used for direct communication with the SIM5320A from the PC for a SIMCOM “AT+” command interchange.

Some of GOBLIN 2 applications:
  • Monitoring of industrial sensors with an RS-485 protocol.
  • Telemetry.
  • Vehicle monitoring.
  • GPS systems.
  • Weather monitoring.
  • Alarm system.
  • Automation applications.
  • SMS Applications, calls.
  • Monitoring of medic variables.
  • Remotes controls.

GOBLIN 2 is now available for $134 on Verse Technology store. Their github repository and documentation page contains some example codes and projects. This video shows the GOBLIN 2 in action:

How to Write and Run a C Program on the Raspberry Pi

In this tutorial, discuss what a C program is, what C programming is used for, and finally, how to write and run a C program on the Raspberry Pi.

The C programming language is one of the most widely used programming languages of all time. It is computationally faster and more powerful than Python. C is a middle level programming language because of its low level of abstraction to assembly language.

How to Write and Run a C Program on the Raspberry Pi – [Link]

Weather Station with a BME280 sensor and an LCD screen with Arduino Mega

In this Arduino Project video is going to build a simple weather station using a BME280 sensor and an LCD shield.

Hello guys, I am Nick and welcome to a channel that is all about DIY electronics projects with Arduino, Raspberry Pi, ESP8266 and other popular boards. Today we are going to take a first look at the new BME280 sensor, a new very interesting sensor. We are going to build a simple but very accurate weather station project. I have built a similar project 2 years ago, using different sensors. Now that we have a new sensor available which makes things easier, it’s time to update the project. As you can see, on the LCD display we can see the temperature, the humidity and the barometric pressure. The readings are updated every two seconds. This is a very easy project to build so it is ideal for beginners! Let’s build it!

Weather Station with a BME280 sensor and an LCD screen with Arduino Mega [Link]

DS28EC20, A Serial 1-Wire 20Kb EEPROM

The American manufacturer of analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits, Maxim Integrated, has developed a new serial EEPROM memory that operates from single-contact 1-wire interface.

The DS28EC20 is a 20480-bit, 1-Wire® EEPROM organized as 80 memory pages of 256 bits each. An additional page is set aside for control functions. Data is written to a 32-byte scratchpad, verified, and then copied to the EEPROM memory.

The 1-Wire is a device communications bus system that provides low-speed data, signaling, and power over a single conductor. This technology uses only two wires; data and ground. It is similar in concept to I²C, but with lower data rates and longer range. It is typically used to communicate with small inexpensive devices such as digital thermometers and weather instruments.

DS28EC20 features:
  • 20480 Bits of Nonvolatile (NV) EEPROM Partitioned into Eighty 256-Bit Pages
  • Individual 8-Page Groups of Memory Pages (Blocks) can be Permanently Write Protected or Put in OTP EPROM-Emulation Mode (“Write to 0”)
  • Read and Write Access Highly Backward-Compatible to Legacy Devices (e.g., DS2433)
  • 256-Bit Scratchpad with Strict Read/Write Protocols Ensures Integrity of Data Transfer
  • 200k Write/Erase Cycle Endurance at +25°C
  • Unique Factory-Programmed 64-Bit Registration Number Ensures Error-Free Device Selection and Absolute Part Identity
  • Switchpoint Hysteresis and Filtering to Optimize Performance in the Presence of Noise
  • Communicates to Host at 15.4kbps or 90kbps Using 1-Wire Protocol
  • Low-Cost TO-92 Package
  • Operating Range: 5V ±5%, -40°C to +85°C
  • IEC 1000-4-2 Level 4 ESD Protection (8kV Contact, 15kV Air, Typical) for I/O Pin

Blocks of eight memory pages can be write-protected or put in EPROM-Emulation mode, where bits can only be changed from a 1 to a 0 state. The life-expectancy of the DS28EC20 is specified at more that 200 k erase/write cycles at 25 °C. The I/O pin has IEC 1000-4-2 Level 4 ESD protections (8 kV contact, 15 kV air).

Applications that can use the DS28EC20:
  • Card/Module Identification in Rack-Based Systems
  • Device Authentication
  • IEEE 1451.4 Sensors
  • Ink and Toner Cartridge ID
  • Medical and Industrial Sensor Identification/Calibration
  • PCB Identification
  • Smart Cable

Ordering DS28EC20 is available for about $1.7 per chip through Maxim website. You can also get design resources and technical documents of the chip.