Tag Archives: microcontroler

A flexible Arduino Prototype

A lot of makers have started venturing into the wearable world in which everything is portable, invisible, light, flexible and functional. Many have found that using Arduino compromised two of those characteristics. Arduino is not flexible, and it is not invisible which is why it is hard to incorporate into this kind of projects.

NextFlex in Silicon Valley has created a prototype of a flexible Arduino, based on the Arduino mini. The prototype is printed on a polymer and then the standard components are bonded. This means that the device is not yet completely flexible since it includes some rigid components, but the company hopes that in the future components such as resistors and capacitors would be printable too.

The process for making the flexible Arduino involves automated screen printers and industrial inkjet printers for printing the circuit on a 1mm thick flexible plastic board. Then, the microcontroller silicon die is connected directly into the surface with high precision.

The conductive ink used is an advanced formulation of silver ink with bending and flexing capabilities, and with strong adhesion to the surface. The ink is not new in the market, but the company is working toward making more reliable and resilient materials.

This device could bring wearables to a whole new level of comfort and could also be used in a lot of situations such as when space is an important variable, or when weight could affect the correct functioning of the device. As a result, the device would not only be useful for makers, but also for students, product designers etc.

On June 26 of the current year, NextFlex will be taking about the project at the Sensors Expo & conference in San Jose, California.

Manufacturers think that prices in this kind of technology would drop rapidly, making it accessible for everyone to use on their projects. NextFlex wants to make this kind of technology the new mainstream for all kind of projects. Flexible microcontrollers could also be used in IoT and medical applications.

In conclusion, Arduino is already a beloved microcontroller because of its open source hardware and software, its ability to be easily programmed, and its low cost, but now it could also be known because of its practical presentation, and ability to be blended. This device is just a prototype and we should expect improvements in the future, but the future is looking bright for makers.

Atmel ATmega8 – A World-Famous Microcontroller Created By Two Annoyed Students

AVR is a family of microcontrollers developed by Atmel beginning in 1996. These are modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single-chip microcontrollers. The Atmel AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. Atmel’s ATmega8 comes from the AVR line of microcontroller and it is a gem of the modern maker movement. It is used as the heart of the first generation of the Arduino board to be widely adopted by electronics hobbyists. Countless creative projects are designed with those cheap yet powerful chips.

ATmega8 was originally developed in the early 1990s by two students at the Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyAlf-Egil Bogen, and Vegard Wollan. Microcontrollers are different from microprocessors in terms of built-in memory and I/O peripherals. They typically have their own onboard program memory and RAM, rather than relying on external chips for these resources.

When Bogen and Wollan were in university, they faced trouble in following the steep learning curve of the complex instruction sets for microprocessors. Most of the processors used in those days were CISC (Complex instruction set computer) based. They wanted to design a RISC (reduced instruction set computer) based microcontroller with an aim in mind to create something that would be easy to program and relatively powerful. Bogen explained in a YouTube video,

I found them very hard to us. The learning curve to get to use them was hard; I found the development tools crappy. And also I saw that the performance of the products was not where I wanted it to be.

Bogen
Alf-Egil Bogen – one of the creators of the AVR core

Computers, that are typically used on the day-to-day basis, use Von Neumann architecture. In this architecture, programs are loaded into the RAM first and then executed from the same. AVR uses the Harvard architecture, in which program memory and working RAM are kept separate, thus enables faster execution of instructions. The first prototype of AVR used ROM, which is not re-writeable, as the program memory. Later Atmel added easily programmable (and reprogrammable) flash memory to the processor core. The first commercial AVR chip, the AT90S8515, was released in 1996. Wollan says in a video,

instructions and stuff were things we were actually thinking of from the very beginning to make it efficient and easy to use from a high-level point of view

Wollen
Vegard Wollen – another creator of AVR